the fascinating world of silicones and their impact on coatings: part 2.

by:Keyuan     2020-05-30
Silicone has been commercialized in the 1940 s in the United States, and since its launch, they have not only significantly expanded in terms of economic growth, but also dramatically diversified in terms of product types and applications.
Silicone is a class of silicon-based compounds that exist in various forms, including oil, liquid, high viscosity polymers, gum, rubber, resin and silicon.
Silicone participation in coatings began in the early stages of the development of silicone products, and today they are widely used in coatings, mainly as modifiers or additives.
Typical modified coatings contain about 30% of the adhesive as silicone, which has better weather resistance, increased water vapor transport and better thermal stability.
Silicone additives are used in a small amount in coatings, usually less than 1% or even lower to achieve a variety of enhancements, such as improving flow peace, sliding and anti-grinding, improving wear resistance, improving adhesion, foam control and water resistance.
While silicone is useful to eliminate or reduce surface defects, they can also produce surface defects.
Understanding of phenomena around surface defects helps coating formulators avoid surface defects caused by silicone. [
Slightly] Illustrations
The first part of this article, published in the April issue of coating technology, presents a brief history of the development of silicone and details their preparation and performance.
The 11 part focuses on the application of silicone in coatings.
Silicone in coatings has found many uses in developed countries because they have unusual surface properties, the ability to resist weather effects, and the ability to function in high temperature and low temperature environments.
It is also because of these properties that silicone is used in coatings.
The application of silicone in coatings is divided into the following four categories: 1.
Silicone Additives, where a small amount of silicone is used (< 10%)2.
Silicone polymer, 10 of which-
50% silicone use 3.
100% silicone coating, of which 100% of the coating or adhesive is silicone 4.
The addition of silicone water-resistant silicone to the paint mainly achieves one or more of the following performance enhancements: improved adhesion, improved moisture, foam control, sliding, improved flow and peace, and improved wear resistance in March, get waterproof and add [H. sub. 2]
O the permeability of steam improves the weather resistance and the stability at high temperature.
Silicone types belonging to the additive category are silicone, silicone Surface Active Agents, silicone foam control compositions and silicone polymers (
Resin, fluid and rubber).
When a small amount of silicone polymer is used (< 10%)
They are classified as additives;
Beyond this amount, they are simply classified as polymers, as their content may be close to 50% of the organic adhesive in the coating.
Silicone polymer, when incorporated into the coating with such a high content (10-
Adhesive solid 50%;
More typical> 30%)
, Usually used to obtain improved high temperature properties, improved weather resistance, or improved water vapor permeability.
On the other hand, a small amount of certain silicone is very effective in changing the surface properties of the coating including waterbased coatings.
When used at a level below 10%, this additive (
Orders are 1% or less in many cases)
, Will have a significant impact on properties such as adhesion, moisture, flow and peace, sliding, March and wear resistance, and foam control, all related to the surface properties of silica gel.
100% silicone (binder)
Silicone elastic coatings used as building coatings, textile coatings and paper coatings;
The silica gel in these applications provides good weather resistance, good high temperature performance and enhanced surface properties respectively. (61),(63)
100% silicone used in adhesive applications can be in the form of a neat polymer, a polymer solution in a solvent, or a water emulsion, which is used as \"as is\" or \"composition\" in water\"based coatings.
Silicone resin can also be used as 100% silicone (binder)coatings.
These are usually solvents.
Base coating for high temperature applications such as cooking (baking)
Pot, outdoor cooking utensils, industrial exhaust cylinder, high temperature chemical process equipment.
Although some water
Based on the silicone resin currently available, satisfactory water is still required
Resin coating system for high temperature applications that meet existing and future volatile organic compounds (VOC)requirements.
Finally, silicone waterproofing agents are used to treat a variety of substrates to obtain a waterproof and/or hydrophobic surface.
These water repellent agents can be used separately or in combination with organic coatings, whether solvent-based or water-based
Depending on the nature of the silicone.
Each of these four categories is discussed separately.
The level of use of silicone additives is different from other silicone used in coatings.
When the content of silicone is lower than 10% of the weight of the coating or adhesive, silicone is classified as an additive.
This is a rough classification used to distinguish the use of silicone as an additive or adhesive modifier, in fact, the use level of most silicone additives is 1% or less of the coating. [
Slightly] Illustrations
During the early development of 1940s commercial silicone, it was found that silicone was useful as an additive in coatings and inks.
Add a small amount of polyzhengdione (PDMS)to solvent-
The base coating reduces the surface tension of the coating and prevents some surface defects such as pits, crawling, floating and orange pee1. (73)
In addition, silicone provides a curing film with improved anti-slip and resistance in March.
With the development of more silicone products, they tested in paint and ink and found that several product types provide unique and beneficial properties for coatings.
Today, silicone additives are firmly established because people have a good understanding of their ability to provide benefits for coatings;
These benefits are listed in Table 7. (74)
Several of these properties may not be well known and have been briefly discussed.
Anti-blocking: When the coating surface is attached to itself, it is usually after two freshly coated items come into contact with each other.
Paint window frames and doors are the most common examples of blocking.
Even if the windowsill or door after paint looks dry, close it and then reopen it later, it causes the paint surface to stick to itself and peel off the paint from one or two surfaces. Polymer (binder)
Molecules spread from one coating to another and form a strong bond between the two layers of the coating.
Silicone can be used for anti-blocking of paint.
At the same time, however, silicone interferes with the recyclability of paint.
Moisten, flow, and peace: when applying a liquid coating, the liquid should flow through the substrate and moisten evenly.
Therefore, moistening is a process in which one fluid is displaced from the substrate by another liquid, for example, the air is replaced by a liquid coating.
Usually, the surface tension of the liquid should be less than the surface tension of the substrate;
Otherwise, there will be no moisture. (75)
The coating should \"flow out\" after moistening the substrate, or in other words, it should flow to produce uniform (hence level)
Surface, thus eliminating irregularities on the surface, such as brush marks.
However, many things can go wrong when the coating is applied and dried, in many cases due to the surface tension gradient caused by the temperature and concentration gradient;
These surface tension gradients may cause surface defects when the film is dry. (76)
By reducing the overall surface tension of the liquid coating, silicone can help wet, flow and smooth. (77)
Sliding and wear in March: Marring is a disturbance of the surface, which changes the appearance of the surface when wear is wear of the surface.
Sliding corresponds to lubrication on the surface of the dry coating. (78)
Marring is usually a close
Surface phenomena that occur when less than 0.
Five o\'clock P. M. in depth, wear is the result of deeper penetration.
79 The physical properties of marking and wear are complex and various models have been proposed to describe events when a hard object moves on a sticky material such as a coating adhesive. (80), (81)
Some silicone has been found to provide excellent anti-slip, March stability and wear resistance in many coatings.
The reason for this is considered to be due to the ability of silicone to accumulate on the surface of the coating and to provide a low coefficient of friction. (82)
When the level of use of silicone additives is 10% or less, they are classified as paint additives.
In most cases, however, their use is much lower than this standard, as it is usually less than 1%.
In many cases, the level of use of silicone additives is as low as 0.
1%, even some applications use 0. 01% or 100 ppm.
The silicone used as an additive is divided into the following categories: 1.
Silicone polymer (
Resin, fluid, rubber)2.
Silicone foam control 3.
Silicone surface active agent 4.
Silicone polymer additive silicone polymer is used as an additive in coatings to provide a non-slip effect and to improve March and wear resistance.
They can also provide anti-blocking, release, waterproofing and tissue.
These polymers are mainly composed of a silicone resin, a linear silicone polymer, or a moisture dispersion or emulsion of an elastic body.
In the case of linear silicone, the medium viscosity polymer (100-1,000 cP)
Polymer with high viscosity (60,000-> [10. sup. 6]cP)
Usually used.
These polymers are almost always able to provide coatings with anti-slip, anti-blocking properties, and due to the low surface energy of Silicone Additives, March and wear resistance have been improved.
During 1940 s, when Silicone Additives are first used in coatings, since the coatings are solvent-based.
Preferred viscosity of silicone fluid (PDMS)
About 350 for solventbased coatings. (83)
Nowadays, there is already a water emulsion consisting of silicone rubber and/or an active substance on the surface of silicone.
Most likely, no neat silicone rubber will be added to the water-based paint because it can easily cause surface defects such as crater or fish eye.
Silicone rubber additive is the moisture dispersion of silicone rubber, or the neat solid particles of silicone rubber.
These silicone moisture dispersion are used in paints and inks to obtain the performance of water-repellent and water-resistant.
They can also provide sliding for the coating, which will have a positive impact on resistance and blocking resistance in March.
The particle size of silicone rubber dispersion is usually lowermicron.
The elastic particles of solid silica gel are usually 2-
5 The size of lam, they are used for texture coating, because their large particle size causes the coating to have a texture surface. (84)
When using these silicone polymers, the repeatable use of paint and coating can be a problem, especially if there is too much silicone.
It is recommended that the paint formulator, when evaluating these additives, seek the lowest effective level of silicone through the experiments designed.
If recyclability becomes a problem when using silicone, in some cases, it may be helpful to use the silicone gel as a primer.
Silicone anti-foaming additive silicone foam control compounds provide anti-foaming performance for coatings, and also can provide defoaming.
Silicone defoaming compositions are sometimes made up of hydrophobic silica dispersed in silicone oil and supplied as oil
Based on a compound or as a water emulsion. (85)
Although it is very effective to control foam in many applications, including paint, silicone anti-foam compound and some silicone anti-foam emulsion can also produce surface defects in paint.
This is because silicone defoaming is mainly incompatible with the coating composition and because of its low surface tension, it is possible to produce surface defects caused by surface tension driving flow. (86)
The latest advertisement for silicone foam control for coating involves the use of certain silicone surface agents that are less likely to cause surface defects. (87)
Silicone surface active substance additive silicone surface active substance or silicone ether (SPEs)
Coating used to reduce the surface tension of liquid coating film;
This can reduce surface defects, improve leveling and improve the wetting of the substrate. (76), (78), (88)
Some silicone Surface Active Agents also provide the sliding properties of the coating and improve the wear resistance, blocking resistance in March, and sometimes improve the gloss. (89)
In these cases, it is considered that the orientation of the spep on the surface of the film is the reason for these benefits.
The level of silicone ether used in the paint varies depending on the type of paint and the desired benefits, but the typical level is usually less than 1.
0% is even as low as 0.
10% can have a significant positive impact on the coating.
Compared to other types of silicone, the silicone Polyether is unlikely to cause surface defects, some of which are even used as defoamer in coatings. (86)
When used for coating, silicone polymers also provide better reusability compared to silicone rubber. (90)
In addition, by reducing the surface tension of the coating, the silicon surface active agent can help overcome some surface defects, thus minimizing the difference in surface tension. (91)
The surface active silicone or silicone surface active substance is derived from a polyether-modified silicone.
The two most common structures of the active substance on the surface of the SPEs or silicon are shown below.
SPEs are widely used as foam stabilizer in polyurethane foam manufacturing, and after years of use in this area, it is found that they provide excellent March resistance in many organic coating systems. (92), (93)
SPEs were prepared by reacting the functional polydithionone with a polydifang Oxygen Supplies for Medicine from polyethylene or polypropylene Oxygen Supplies for Medicine or both (copolymeric). (94)
The early SPEs of the coating contain SiOC connections and therefore are prone to hydrolysis instability.
The improvement of hydrolysis stability is the preparation of SPEs by reaction of SiH functional silicone with propylene functional polyethylene oxide to provide non-
As shown in the structure of the following, the hydrolysis speak. (89)
Completely ethylene oxide can be used to gather propylene ether (0Et)
Fully epoxy propylene (
OM, or polymer for both.
The end base of the ether is usually OH, or covered with Oxygen Supplies for Medicine or acetate. (89)[
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A wide variety of silicone ether structures are possible depending on the ratio of DME to ether base, their molecular weight, and the type of polyurethane and the type of structure of silicone, which includes chain-
End substitution, pendant substitution, or various branch structures. (95)
SPEs are used in both solvents
Water-based paint. (90)
The other one, which is itself in one category, is trisilicon ether, nicknamed \"Super wet \".
\"Trisilicone is very effective because it can reduce the surface tension in the water
A significant coating with a relatively low surface active substance content. (96)
A typical three Silicon super wet agent is shown :[
Mathematical expressions that cannot be reproduced in ASCII]
In some of the herbicide compositions, trisilicone is used as an aid to improve the wetting of the herbicide to the leaves of wax-bearing plants, and they are also used in coatings to achieve a hard-to-wet substrate for some(97), (98)
Silicone Additives silicone is used as an additive in coatings for pigment treatment, increased adhesion and cross-linking in certain types of coatings.
Silicon used in solvents --
If the water level in this coating is small and can be controlled, the water based on the coating is usually simple.
99 although it is common to hydrolysis silicon by water, some silicon is compatible with water and can therefore be used in certain water-based coatings for better adhesion.
At present, there are a large number of organic functional silicone in the market, but only a few have water compatibility.
Although alcohol Oxygen Supplies for Medicine silicone will react with water and eventually form a double half-Cao ketone resin that can be precipitated, several of them are compatible with water because they form a water dispersion low poly dispersed in water
The three most common water-compatible silicon has amino or epoxy functions. (67), (68)[([C. sub. 2][H. sub. 5]O). sub. 3]SiC[H. sub. 2]C[H. sub. 2]C[H. sub. 2]N[H. sub. 2][(C[H. sub. 3]O). sub. 3]SiC[H. sub. 2]C[H. sub. 2]C[H. sub. 2]NHC[H. sub. 2]C[H. sub. 2]C[H. sub. 2][
Mathematical expressions that cannot be reproduced in ASCII]
In some cases, amino-functional silicon is not compatible with Yin emulsion or Yin emulsion because they may cause ions to stabilize the solidification of latex particles.
Silicon is commonly used in coatings to obtain better adhesion to the substrate and also for pigment treatment.
Silanes is able to combine with the pigment surface and provide better chemical bonding between pigment particles and organic polymer adhesives. (65)(67)
In some cases, silicone also provides improved pigment dispersion and helps to prevent the reunion of pigment particles.
In paint, 1% adhesive is usually used. (67), (68)(100)
When silicone is used for cross-linking in coatings, they can be added to coatings, or they can be grafted or aggregated with organic adhesives. (101), (102)
In both cases, the reaction of silicon with organic polymer adhesives, followed by the hydrolysis and condensation reaction of the Oxygen Supplies for Medicine-based on silicon, is the reason for the cross-reactionlinking. (102), (103)
In water-based coatings, after application, it is hoped that cross-linking will occur after removing water.
In some cases, the Silicon alcohol oxide reacts prematurely, which results in pre-curing or pre-cross-linked polymer emulsion.
In order to solve this problem, there is a large amount of alcohol Oxygen Supplies for Medicine (
So the reaction is slower)such as RSi[(Oi-Bu). sub. 3]were developed. (104)
It is also possible to use certain organic functional silicone to cross-link reactive organic polymers.
For example, Epoxy functional silicone can be used to cross-link acrylic functional latex. (105)
It should be understood that not all Silicone Additives provide all the benefits listed as different types of silicone offer different benefits.
It should also be emphasized that the silicone used in one type of coating may behave differently when used in another type of coating.
Finally, it should be recognized that certain silicone additives may be incompatible in some coatings and may lead to surface defects.
Silicone polymers in coatings This category describes 10-
50% of the coated adhesive is silicone.
The coating is modified with this amount of silicone, which can improve the high temperature performance and weather resistance.
In order to achieve the improvement of these properties, the minimum level of silicone required is about 15% of the weight of organic resin, and the typical value is about 30-50%. (106)
The silicone type used in these coatings is almost always silicone resin.
Silicone resin used in these applications is mainly based on a combination of benzene and methyl group.
Two basic preparation methods for silicone
Organic coatings are: cold mixing and co-polymerization.
During 1950 s, cold mixing of silicone resin with organic coating adhesives such as Ester occurs first, which results in a significant increase in the weather resistance of the coating.
Next, a co-polymerization version of organic silicone Ester was developed, which provides a coating that is superior to the weather resistance of the cold mixture.
These aggregate silica gel-
Alkyds is made of \"cooking\" silicone resin with alcohol (in solvent)
This results in the SiOH-based reaction on the silicone resin to the methanol-based reaction of the acrylic resin. Later silicone-
Acrylic paint has been developed and used as a building paint.
Other organic coating systems used with silicone resin include phenol, epoxy, epoxy ester, and saturated polyester.
In the 1960 s, the United StatesS.
The Navy began painting the ship\'s superstructure with silicone mellow acid paint, and since then the scope of use has been expanding. (107)
Silicone Ester has been successful in many other coating applications such as communication towers, bridges, railcars, storage tanks and exterior of metal buildings. (103)
Another resin used in the paint is sometimes referred to as a silicone intermediate, consisting of a chlorine-oxygen functional silicone low poly or polymer.
These silicones have been around for quite some time and they have been optimized to provide good weather resistance while reducing costs.
They are based on units of one benzene, benzene/methyl, and PX. (108)
Of course, all of these coatings are solvent, and although they have excellent weather resistance, their main drawback is the high VOC content. (59)
To obtain a lower VOC coating, a higher solid content silicone resin was later developed. (109)Next, water-
In order to meet the requirements of more stringent VOC, reducing silicone resin has been developed. (110)
Although great progress has been made in the silicone resin field for low VOC coatings, technological advances in this area have not actually kept up with the pace of regulation.
In other words, according to today\'s standards or regulations, many silicone resins that provide excellent weather resistance to coatings are approaching too high VOC levels.
In some applications, solvent-
Silicone based resin can still be used, for example in coil coating, solvent is covered
Fuel used to help dry the coating. (111)
Although many silicone resin applications in coatings require solvents and are therefore limited by current VOC regulations, some progress has been made in the field of aqueous silicone resin emulsion or dispersion systems.
A number of water-a silicone resin dispersion has been developed for modifying acrylic latex in the building paint on the building facade. (112)
These resins give the facade a water-repellent performance and provide better water vapor transport.
Other water-based silicone resins have been developed for high-temperature coatings and appropriate selection of ingredients;
This coating can be used at a temperature of 600 [degrees]C. (113)
The silicone water dispersion system is fundamentally different from the solvent-loaded silicone resin, so they are not necessarily a direct replacement.
Their use requires careful consideration and a large number of experiments, and in many cases the performance of water-based silicone resin is not acceptable for certain coating applications.
100% the silicone categories in silicone coatings include those that, depending on which the entire paint or adhesive is silicone.
Typically, these coatings are based on silicone resin or silicone rubber, which are present as solvents
Paint and water-based coatings.
In the case of silicone resin, some solvents-
The previous section discussed the base resin and water-based resin of silicone polymer in paint.
Some of these resin solutions and resin moisture dispersion can also be used as 100% silicone coatings, or in other words, the adhesive is all silicone.
Despite all
Silicone coatings based on silicone resin have excellent weather resistance and are not widely used outside (architectural)coatings.
However, they are largely used as high-temperature coatings.
Therefore, the film-forming agent based on 100% silicone resin is used for high-temperature coatings and coatings, wear-
100% silicone elastic film forming agents are used in building coatings, fabric coatings, paper coatings and Marine anti-fouling paints. Resin-
Based on the coating and elastic coating and several coating types are discussed respectively.
Silicone resin coatings (100% Silicone)
Paint based entirely on silicone resin is mainly solvent-
Base coating of active silicone resin, usually cured after removal of solvent by heating.
These coatings are cured by hot solid and usually include resin films that are condensed by Silicon alcohol to produce an infinite molecular weight.
In some cases, these resins are alkaline and also cured to form a hard film of resin.
These coatings have been discovered.
Extended use as a high temperature coating and release coating for bakeware.
Although most silicone resin coatings are solvent-
Based on this, some silicone resin moisture dispersion with low VOC has been developed, especially for high temperature coatings.
Several of these coatings are described in more detail.
High temperature coatings use silicone resin as adhesive in hot-medium
Coating resistance began in late 1940.
These silicone resins provide coating formulators with a way to prepare high-performance coatings for many high-temperature applications (such as exhaust chimneys, ovens, stoves, barbecue grills, cookware, Wood)
Stoves, camp stoves, lighting and heat exchangers.
Table 8 gives an indication of the thermal stability of silicone resin based on different organic substituents on silicon. (114)The half-
The lifetime of the coating in Table 8 refers to the time when half of the organic substitution genes are oxidized and eliminated from the resin.
As can be seen from Table 8, benzene-
Silicone-containing has the best thermal stability.
Therefore, the upper temperature of the coating based on benzene silicone resin is about 260 [degrees]C.
Extend the time or under high temperature (> 400 [degrees]C)
All organic bases on silicon will be oxidized, leaving Silicon behind.
In these cases, benzene-based resin experiences greater weight loss than methyl-based resin.
This higher weight loss leads to an increase in cracking, resulting in the failure of the coating.
For very high temperature coatings, the wise choice of silicone resin and pigments provides the best results. Aluminum (leafing)
Pigments improve the thermal stability of all paints including organic matter, but if the paint contains silicone resin, the thermal stability is as high as 315 [degrees]
C can be implemented.
115 it is presumed that silica in silicone resin forms bonds with alumina to produce a lasting heat-
Resistant to coating.
Higher coating service temperatures up to 760 °c can be obtained using ceramic frits and silicone resin;
The silicone resin will be oxidized to silica over time, which can be fused with frits to form a durable heat-stable coating. (112), (115)
The first silicone coating for food contact release coated food release is a silicone resin coated bakery Pan for commercial bread baking.
Before 1946, the commercial baker used lard on the iron pan to feed the baked bread. (116)
Silicone bread tray paint--
[Silicone pot glaze ]--
It was launched in 1946 and is still in use today because they are the highest cost-
Effective release system for the baking industry. (117)
The baking tray series coated with silicone resin is also available to consumers at low cost.
This is not to be confused with the recent launch of silicone rubber baking and cookware, which are already very popular with consumers.
A baking tank coated with silicone resin will eventually get dirty;
For the commercial baking industry, remove silicone resin from the pan using hot alkali and re-mark the pan. (118)
Silicone resin for baking trays is traditionally used as low solids (20-40%)
Solvent coating.
As VOC regulations become more stringent, there is still a need for compliance, low
VOC silicone resin paint for baking trays. Abrasion-
Wear-resistant coating with excellent wear resistance can be prepared by hydrolysis [MeSi(OMe). sub. 3], methyltrime-
Thoxsilane in the presence of colloidal silica. (119)
The composition is solidified to form a clear, hard coating with excellent wear resistance and is mainly used to coat plastics such as polycarbonate and polymethyl ester.
The coating is condensed and solidified by Silicon alcohol to form a highly cross-linked network.
The coating is supplied as an alcohol solution-
Although it has a very short shelf life, it can be managed.
Convert this system to all-
However, in order to meet the current VOC Regulations, water-based coatings.
Elastic coating (100% Silicone)
Silicone elastic coatings can be divided into solvent-free coatings, solvent coatings or water-based coatings.
Solvent-free silicone coatings are made up of active silicone polymers with sufficiently low viscosity, so they are able to form a film when applied, and then they react to form a cross-linked silicone polymer or silicone(120)
These materials are mainly used in the application of paper coatings for the manufacture of release pads for organic adhesives.
They are usually two.
Partial coating systems cure very quickly at high temperatures.
These coatings are usually cured using a Pt-catalytic addition reaction or a Sn-catalytic condensation reaction.
Another Silicone elastic coating is commonly referred to as LSR or liquid silicone rubber.
Although LSR is mainly used for forming silicone rubber products, it can also be used as a coating, such as a textile coating. (121)LSR is a two-part heat-
A curing composition consisting of a filler and an active silicone polymer, usually cured by a Pt-catalytic addition reaction.
LSR is also used as a coating for high performance airbags (automotive).
Solvent-based Silicone elastic coatings are typical active silicone polymers, and fillers and pigments are dispersed in the solvent.
They are usually RTV coated and cured by ambient moisture.
Building coatings and roof coatings are typical applications.
As expected, these coatings are under regulatory pressure due to the presence of a large amount of volatile solvents. Water-
Silicone-based elastic coating consists of a water-based emulsion pre-cured or pre-cured
Cross-linked silicone polymer. (122)
The dispersion of the enhanced filler and pigment also forms part of the paint.
Removing water leaves a Silicone elastic film.
These Silicone elastic coatings are used as architectural coatings, textile coatings and paint additives.
The presence of surface active substances, held together with the coating during drying, may in some cases reduce some other outstanding properties of silicone.
Marine anti-fouling paint for tin
Due to aquatic toxicity, marine-based anti-fouling paints have been banned in many parts of the developed world and have been looking for suitable alternatives for the past 25 years or so.
Silicone has become a material of great interest because of its anti-Marine dirt performance. (123-125)
Silicone coating based on silicone rubber containing release additives seems to be the most effective. (126)
The release additive is designed to have limited solubility in the coating, so it will migrate to the surface of the coating.
Although organic oils and wax can also be used as release additives, the most effective additives are silicone consisting of a base and a benzene substituent. (127)
Silicone rubber anti-fouling paint is still developing.
Silicone water repellent silicone has natural water repellent properties, and its excellent weather resistance makes the water repellent very effective.
The effect of silicone water repellent is to create a water-repellent, durable surface on the top and inside of the substrate.
Unlike silicone elastic coatings, they do not form a continuous film on the surface of the substrate, but silicone waterproof coatings make the surface of the substrate become hydrophobic.
Silicone water repellent can transport water vapor, but it can inhibit the migration of liquid water through the substrate.
This is especially important for the building facade, as trapped moisture can escape inside or behind the base.
Silicone water repellent can be divided into two basic categories: solvent-Foundation and waterbased.
Most silicone water repellent is a precursor such as an active silicone polymer or silane, although in some cases, high-molecular-weight silicone rubber will act as a water repellent.
Although some non
In some cases, active polybendione can be used as a water repellent, and most silicone water repellent, especially those with higher performance, are based on active silicone polymers or silicone.
A few more important water
A silicone-based water repellent was discussed separately.
Silicate alkaline metallic silicate is water soluble and has excellent waterproof properties on mineral surfaces such as bricks, limestone, masonry, ceramics, mortar, glaze and tiles. (128)
Silicate is prepared by a hydrocarbon-Ester reaction.
Alcohol Oxygen Supplies for Medicine silicon containing sodium or hydrogen Oxygen Supplies for Medicine potassium in water: RSi [(OMe). sub. 3]+ KOH + 2[H. sub. 2]O [right arrow]or [vector]RSi[(OH). sub. 2]
OK + 3MeOH alcohol is removed and water silicate is usually provided as a water concentrate at a concentration of about 40%.
The hydrocarbon groups on Si can be methyl, ethyl or propylene;
The solubility in water is limited.
Sodium or potassium methyl silicone is used as a diluted aqueous solution of the substrate and is fully cured and functional within a few days to a week.
Reaction with environment C [curing silicateO. sub. 2]
The formation of the double half-grass ketone resin and alkali carbonate, which were washed away during weathering. 2RSi[(OH). sub. 2]OK + C[O. sub. 2][right arrow]or [vector]2RSi[O. sub. 3/2]+ [K. sub. 2]C[O. sub. 3]+ 2[H. sub. 2]
O emulsion water emulsion of silicone polymer including linear silicone, resin and elastomer can be used neatly as a water repellent or as an additive in an organic coating.
Silicone polymers are functional in some cases, so they can react to the substrate surface or between them to a certain extent.
The functionality of silicone polymer water repellent is usually composed of silicone alcohol (SiOH), alkoxy (SIOR)
, Or silicon hydrogen (SiH).
Although the latter two functional bases react to water, they can be stabilized in the water emulsion under appropriate conditions and react when applied to a specific substrate.
Silicone rubber latex forms a waterproof coating and is therefore not considered a waterproof coating.
However, when additives are used in some organic coatings, it can enhance the waterproof properties of these coatings.
Twelve-
The alcohol-Oxygen Supplies for Medicine silanes, which form a substituent half-Ester during hydrolysis and condensation, is a particularly effective water-repellent agent. (128)
The SiOH group condenses with themselves, and can also condense with other oh on the surface of the mineral, forming a close bond between the polycyone resin and the substrate: RSi [(OR\'). sub. 3]+ 2[H. sub. 2]O [right arrow]or [vector]RSi[(OH). sub. 3]+ 3R\'OH RSi[(OH). sub. 3][right arrow]or [vector]RSi[O. sub. 3/2]+ 3/2[H. sub. 2]O R = C[H. sub. 3], [C. sub. 3][H. sub. 7],[C. sub. 8][H. sub. 17];
R \'= Me, the preferred product of Et hydrophobing concrete is the silicon of noctyltri B Oxygen Supplies for Medicine.
It can be applied neatly, as a solution in a solvent, or as a water emulsion application.
Some substrates, such as concrete, contain residual alkalinity as a catalyst to promote the hydrolysis and condensation of silicon and active silicone.
For neutral substrates, especially wood, it may be necessary to add a catalyst to the silicone waterproofing material for it to work properly.
Water-other silicone waterproof composition
Soluble or water
By adding a certain level of hydrophilic part to the silicone structure, a reduced silicone composition was prepared.
Such hydrophilic groups are usually amino acid-based amine or amine salts.
29. The removal of water will deposit silicone. After a short period of time, the salt will break down and leave a hydrophobic silicone.
Silicone and surface defects due to their unusual surface properties, silicone is very easy to cause surface defects of the coating.
The most common adverse effects of silicone are that the coating is not able to properly moisten the intended substrate when certain silicone is present, especially if silicone has pre-wet
Wet the substrate.
For the coating to wet the substrate, the surface tension of the liquid coating must be lower than the surface tension of the substrate. (76), (78)
The surface tension is 21 mN/rn (dynes/cm)
, Significantly lower than the surface tension of most coatings, the coating will not be damp if silicone rubber is absorbed on the substrate.
This phenomenon is not limited to silicone because any substance with a surface tension lower than the coating, such as organic oil or resin, will perform similarly. (130)
However, in the case of silicone, it may be visually difficult to detect if there is silicone.
At the same time, silicone can help wet low-energy surfaces, such as certain plastics. (131), (132)
When added to the coating, the silicone surface active agent is able to reduce the surface tension enough to allow the coating to moisten the low energy surface.
The common surface active agent can perform the same function, but in this respect, the silicone surface active agent is usually more effective, so it can be used at a lower level to achieve the ideal(133)
The second most common surface defect associated with silicone is Crater and/or fisheye.
Craters and fish eyes come from a substance with lower surface tension relative to the coating and are not dispersed in the coating (nonhomogeneous)
Or on the surface of the substrate. (134)
As the 19th-century physicist Carlo Marangoni points out, the liquid flows from the low surface tension region to the high surface tension region. (135)
An example of the Marangoni effect is \"tears of wine\", which occurs when a glass of wine is tilted or rotated and the wine drops above the liquid level and falls back to the liquid. (136)
Alcohol evaporated from the curved moon surface of the wine can cause areas with higher surface tension.
Since the surface tension of the remaining liquid is lower than the curved surface, a flow is generated to push the liquid to the glass wall.
When more alcohol evaporates from the liquid film on the glass wall, the surface tension becomes higher and the flow rate increases.
Water droplets formed from the liquid gathered at the top of the membrane, much higher than the liquid level, and when the mass of the water droplets overcomes the power of upward flow, they fall back into the glass.
This simple example of Marangoni flow is highly correlated with the coating, because usually, the flow driven by surface tension or the flow driven by surface tension differential will develop when the coating is dry, this can lead to very harmful defects in the application coating.
Impurities, such as dust or tiny oil drops left on the substrate, and the surface tension is lower than that of the coating liquid, will cause the coating to flow out of the impurities very quickly.
This causes the film to form a crater during drying.
Particles of undispersed substances with a surface tension lower than the liquid coating in the coating may cause the same phenomenon.
The crater diameter caused by the Marangoni flow can be as high as 10 times, even higher than the diameter of impurities in the lower energy. (137)
Silicone is incompatible or dissoluble in most coating compositions, plus their low surface energy can lead to surface defects.
However, if the silicone is properly dispersed in the liquid coating and remains stable during the drying process, then almost no (if any) surface defects can be attributed to the silicone.
When added to the coating, some silicone components are unstable and easy to combine or solidify.
In this case, surface defects usually occur if the clot particles are of large size.
In many cases, formulators correctly associate surface defects with the presence of silicone and immediately dismiss all silicone that are prone to these surface defects.
On the other hand, if it is possible to understand the cause of the instability of the silicone surface and find a way to overcome the instability, the coating formulator can get a return on the use of silicone in its coating, there is no annoying surface defect problem.
To reiterate, some of the benefits that silicone can provide to the paint are improved flow peace, slip and wear resistance, improved resistance in March, and increased water-solubility, defoaming and adhesion.
It should be understood that none of the silicone will cause all of these properties;
Instead, these benefits are usually achieved using different silica gel.
Although silicone does cause surface defects, they are also very useful to prevent surface defects.
Since many surface defects are caused by the flow of coating liquid caused by the difference in surface tension, reducing the overall surface tension of the coating can eliminate or minimize these flows, and lead to the elimination or reduction of the severity of coating defects. (88)
For this reason, silicone surfactant is the most famous silicone additive.
Of all silicone used in coatings, silicone surface active agents may be the least likely to cause surface defects. (138)
Table 9 provides a list of common surface defects that silicone can correct.
The environmental fate of silicone is completely synthesized, so they are never found in nature.
The fact that they do not exist in nature suggests that they will eventually return to a state of complete oxidation, namely, Si [O. sub. 2]and C[O. sub. 2].
Although silicone polymers can withstand extreme temperatures and have excellent durability under outdoor exposure, silicone will eventually fail because they will not last forever.
In applications at extreme high temperatures, silicone coatings form protective coatings through organic matter on silica, leaving a layer of silica gel combined with pigments as a coating.
The results of silicone in the environment have been studied in the past, and the results are basically notalarming. (139)
The reason for so little attention is that, as further studies have shown, silicone is degraded in the soil due to contact with clay minerals. (140), (141)
Clay is used as a catalyst to dissolve the silicone chain into the main [Me. sub. 2]Si[(OH). sub. 2]
The molecular weight of silicone rubber is not considered.
142 silicone diol is further degraded in the soil or evaporated into an atmosphere that is oxidized and degraded.
143 It is therefore clear that silicone rubber is converted back to its oxidized components: amorphous silica, carbon dioxide, and water. (144)
Recently, the topic of organic silicon in the environment has re-emerged, which is a topic of interest, especially about volatile organic silicon compounds such [D. sub. 4]and [D. sub. 5]. (145), (146)
Government regulators are reviewing
Persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity)
The performance of these volatile silicone remains to be seen and how the results are.
At present, a large number of studies have been carried out on the health and environmental effects of products containing [D. sub. 4]and [D. sub. 5]
And the overall consensus is that silicone polymers and volatile silicone such [D. sub. 4]and [D. sub. 5]
Harmless to human health or the environment. (147)
Key silicone producers and the Silicone Industry Association are working with government regulators to help them understand the unique nature and environmental fate [D. sub. 4]and [D. sub. 5]
As mentioned earlier, the future of silicone in coatings, silicone can provide rich benefits for coatings, such as improving weather resistance, high temperature stability, increasing wear resistance, improving resistance in March, improved flow peace, foam control, water resistance and air permeability.
In some applications, the desired effect cannot be achieved without the use of silicone.
Therefore, silicone has become an important element in the paint formulator toolbox to achieve certain desired properties of the paint.
As VOC regulations become more stringent, and as the market and global trends continue to exert their influence, volatile substances will be required in the future to remain lower than today\'s coatings.
The improvement of performance and the improvement of durability are also important.
For silicone in coatings, the result seems bright as they have a very good ability to meet high performance requirements.
However, the challenge seems to be able to meet these needs using compositions containing lower volatile content.
This is especially true of silicone resin. In many water-
Application of base coatings, it is the presence of surface active substances (s)
This reduces the performance of the coating system.
So is the water-Based on silicone.
Therefore, it is still necessary to find the means to provide water
Base silicone with the same properties as pure or solvent-
Silicone in paint.
These findings are actually there, the authors argue, and they are just waiting to happen.
Summary and conclusion silicone, some of their explanatory history, their preparation and properties, and their application in coatings, in bothpart article.
Silicone is a class of compounds or their precursors that have at least one Silicon.
Carbon Bond and silicon unit.
Silicone is present in many forms, including oil or liquid, high viscosity polymer, gum, rubber, resin and silicon.
Silicone was commercialized in the US in early 1940 and has experienced strong growth since then.
Silicone is used in coatings to improve outdoor durability and improve water vapor transmission for high temperature performance and coatings.
They are also used as additives in coatings to obtain sliding and anti-grinding properties, improve wear resistance, improve adhesion, improve paint dispersion, improve moisture, flow peace, foam control and water resistance.
Although silicone can help the coating to eliminate or reduce the severity of surface defects, they can also cause surface defects, and understanding the phenomenon that causes surface defects can help to successfully use silicone in the coating.
The author would like to thank the organizers of the water seminar for inviting him to present this lecture and to thank and thank the school of polymer and high performance materials for their support to the University of South Mississippi in the following areas, Ms. Hattiesburg
The author would also like to thank Dow Corning for its support.
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