the dark side of plastic surgery
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Meilan Yang has blond hair and is beautiful and popular;
Her father is in charge of a wealthy and powerful Hollywood studio.
On the weekend, she went to the party with her parents and met the movie star of the day.
\"But whatever I have, it\'s not enough,\" said Elaine, 53, a partner at a successful real estate company in Beverly Hills.
The women here are beautiful.
No matter how good your personality is or how many men like you are, you will feel uneasy.
You think, \'I have to look better.
The competition is so fierce.
When she was in her early 20 s, Elaine was a superstar real estate agent who found home for Elvis, Johnny Carson, Paul Newman, Elizabeth Taylor and many other celebrities, who has she been married to for five years?
However, her success has never eased her feeling of emptiness and \"not good enough.
An old acquaintance walked into her office in the spring of 1977.
\"Her high cheekbones look beautiful.
\"She told me that silicone was injected into her face,\" Elaine said . \".
I was in her doctor\'s office the next day.
\"More than 1 million Americans undergo some kind of cosmetic surgery each year.
In what seems forever
The procedure of the invention is eyebrow lifting, nose work, eyelids, breast augmentation, belly, liposuction and controversial and disturbing silicone injections.
Once it becomes the exclusive domain of celebrities and rich people, this kind of surgery and sculpture becomes commonplace for everyone in C. E. O. to the rank-and-
Members of the document Union, male and female.
Cosmetic surgery is clearly a thriving industry.
In the most recent issue of Los Angeles magazine, more than 25 ads undisguised peddling the miracle of this operation, as if it were an aluminum siding at a cost ranging from $50 to $5,000
Many surgeons earn up to six digits and spend tens of thousands of dollars on interior decoration in order to replicate the European environment.
Advertising some people think the prosperity of cosmetic surgery is due to new, more complex procedures, safer anesthetic and desire for selfimprovement. Others credit -or blame -
A narcissistic culture that desires instant gratification, youth, and perfection, fearing aging and death.
The darkest observers see this trend as the number of profit quotient of human beings themselves. loathing.
Next year and a half, doctor.
Jack Staz injects silicone at least once a month into Elaine Young\'s cheek with the aim of creating a strong, high cheekbone look.
Her face immediately swollen after the injection, but the silicone will fall the next day and look good.
That\'s great, Elaine thought.
She sent her friends and many celebrity clients to Dr. Startz.
About three years later Elaine noticed that the shape of her face was changing.
Silicone seems to be moving and growing.
At first it was around the cheekbones;
Then it starts moving around and grows out of both sides of my face.
I get ugly and weird.
I called Startz and told him I had a problem. \'\'Suddenly, Dr.
Startz stopped calling her.
In any general discussion about cosmetic surgery, it is important to note that the vast majority of patients have a satisfactory experience.
For example, surgeons cut and tighten the face skin on the scalp, or inject natural fiber tissue collagen into the face, so cosmetic surgery is relatively risk-free. Dr.
Frank Carmer, Beverly Hills surgeon, said, \"good plastic surgery is quick psychotherapy and there are thousands of satisfied patients who will agree with him very quickly.
\"There is nothing better than working on a candidate who is mentally and physically good,\" he said . \". Dr.
Kamer, interviewed during his break for lunch, spent the morning \"doing rhinoplasty on the air controller and then doing cosmetic surgery on the movie star \". \'\' His two-
The story building has a separate V. I. P.
Entrance and lobby, even casual brush celebrities with ordinary people.
He said he refused about 40% of the people who came to see him, either because they had unrealistic fantasies or because they were overweight, so there could be risks with this type of surgery for various reasons.
Responsible cosmetic surgeons only operate on candidates who are mentally stable and healthy
For example, people who do not have heart disease or diabetes, people who are not obese, do not have a large number of smokers, and have poor blood supply to their skin. Dr.
Kamer and other supporters have also warned that the general risk of complications is also present.
\"Any operation can lead to death,\" he said . \"
Death is the ultimate complication.
\"Out of the entire 1981, Elaine Young saw a series of doctors who, when they saw her face, shrugged helplessly, were not familiar with any procedure to remove silicone.
She contacted a lawyer and filed a complaint against the doctor. Startz.
\"My lawyer is really excited,\" Elaine recalls . \".
\"Then he told me that there were 105 lawsuits in front of me.
Helen Ballas, who works for the doctor
Starting Z, who worked as a technician and office manager from 1965 to 1979, said Elaine\'s silicone injection was about the average Dr in quantity and quantity
Patient of Startz
She estimated that the number of people he injected silicone was about 2,000.
Eventually Elaine was referred to the doctor.
Lawrence Severt, then chairman of Cedar plastic surgery
Sinai Hospital in Los AngelesDr.
Seifert has questions about the success of any treatment.
He said that his previous experience was limited to correcting the serious complications caused by silicone injections in the chest;
Hard rock, rotten and broken
Breast resection is usually required.
Doctor after consultation
Fred Glazer, Newport Beach, California; Dr.
Ernest Kaplan of Stanford University and
Harvey Zalin is in the United States. C. L. A. , Dr.
Seifert tried to suck silicone out of Elaine\'s face.
But the silicone has become too hard for him to take out.
He injected steroids into her face, trying to reduce inflammation that gradually distorted her features.
Although this is not a treatment, Elaine is satisfied with the results.
Although the problem with facial surgery may be more obvious, breast surgery is at the top of the list of risks and troubles for most plastic surgeons.
Surgeons and patients have achieved some success in placing improved breast implants under the muscles of the chest, not between the skin and muscles, but many problems remain.
The main complication of breast augmentation surgery is the contracture contraction of the fiber capsule.
When the scar tissue inevitably formed around the implant shrinks, the hardening of the breast.
A successful New York fashion designer who asked for anonymity said she wouldn\'t be unhappy if her left chest had a well-known tennis consistency, but it was hard.
Usually, the second type of surgery, the closed capsule incision, in which the doctor manually breaks down the scar tissue around the implant, solves the problem.
But for the fashion designer, another big surgery is needed to replace the first implant.
Some women complained that they had never been told about the possibility of capsule contracture contraction, although the designer said her surgeon did warn her.
\"But I really wanted to have this surgery so I didn\'t listen to it seriously.
\"In most cases, breast augmentation is reversible as long as the implant is removed.
However, for women who think that big breasts are a necessary condition for a better life, this is often unthinkable. Dr.
Sherrell Aston and other plastic surgeons say they are careful to alert patients to the risks and inform some that they are not good candidates, but many patients, like designers, do not heed the warnings. Dr.
Howard Belin recalled that he had done two capsule-cutting operations on a patient.
He said he eventually thought she was not a good candidate for breast augmentation at all and was willing to admit defeat.
\"She sat on the table naked.
\"I told her at the end of wit that I think we should remove the implants,\" he said . \".
She grabbed the two breasts with her palm, looked at me in surprise, put on her clothes, and I never saw her again.
She will attack me if I want to get those things out.
Nevertheless, Paul Tilton of the Food and Drug Administration\'s Centre for equipment and Radiation Health, said he believes that many women across the country are clearly not well prepared for dangerous and complex situations.
\"Breast implants can easily fail,\" Tilton said . \"
\"They won\'t live forever.
Plastic surgeons will not let their patients know that they may have repeated surgery, but in fact it is.
One of the problems, Tilton said, is that the manufacturer believes that the user of the MSDS implant is a doctor, not a patient.
Another possible complication, Tilton added, is \"bleeding\" in the breast and other parts of the body \".
Tracking without System
Tilton said that women with implants have been studied since the first use of implants in 1964, but earlier animal studies have shown that silicone particles can bleed through the implant membrane, and stuck in many organs of the body.
A law came into force in Maryland on last January.
This is the first of its kind.
At least five days before breast surgery.
At the time of the implant surgery, the patient is given a booklet listing potential risks and complications.
In 1976, a bill was passed by Congress. D. A.
The authority to regulate all medical devices is still not fully exercised by the agency in terms of breast augmentation. The F. D. A.
They have never been approved, but they have not been banned.
However, the agency did ask for a second breast
If it is an implant operation due to a medical device failure, please report it.
According to Brian Kunst, he monitors general surgery and plastic surgery equipment for F. D. A.
In his department, the failure rate of breast implants is the highest.
According to F Tilton, in the near futureD. A.
Designating all of the MSDS implants as tertiary surgical instruments means that there is not enough evidence now to ensure their safety and effectiveness, and that manufacturers must demonstrate that they are effective and safe before they are allowed to use them.
Breast lifting and shrinking surgery can also be particularly troublesome.
David Taback, a New York lawyer, tells about the failure of a young client\'s surgery: \"Her breasts are uneven --
Different sizes, different shapes, one is squareshaped -
Half of her. inch-
Thick, red, ugly scars are so big that the entire outline of her breast is deformed.
She sued her surgeon for misconduct and did not fully explain to her the risk of the operation.
However, Taback made it clear that it was expensive and laborious to pursue court justice in cosmetic surgery cases.
\"Juries generally do not accept people who are not satisfied with what God has given them,\" he said . \".
Because the doctor of the young womanand still is -
No Manhattan surgeon in his field is willing to testify for her.
\"They won\'t testify for their friends,\" Taback said . \" He said that he eventually found a doctor in Brooklyn and that he had nothing to do with the plaintiff and was willing to testify.
Just before the summary, when the plastic surgeon\'s insurance company agreed to pay the young woman $50,000, the case was settled out of court.
In the next four years
Seifert was able to stop the destruction of silicone for Elaine Young.
He injected her with steroids three or four times as a \"temporary procedure \".
Still, her face began to be severely distorted again.
She was frightened by the rapid change.
\"I can\'t sleep on both sides of my face.
I have silicone in my eyes.
\"At about the same time, she learned
Startz committed suicide, and his behavior and reputation were a mess.
It\'s not uncommon to hear people talk about the pressure of friends to give them some kind of surgery, to make them look more attractive, or to talk about their own desire to look younger.
Joie Davidow, 41, publisher. A.
Fashion magazine says her friend, a professional woman in her 30 s and 40 s, \"panicked about aging,\" and most of them have had liposuction.
\"It\'s a very social thing.
They called me and said, \'What are you doing on Thanksgiving weekend? \'
I did a little work on my thigh.
Why don\'t you go with me and get your stomach ready?
She says she feels the pressure of her peers and her own worries about everyone who looks older than her age.
Patricia Resnick, a 30-year-old screenwriter, said, \"I have been friends with the same crowd for about 10 years.
They are always 8 years older than me, but now they suddenly look 8 years younger.
Comedy writer Larry gebart has a different story.
\"They don\'t look young,\" he said. \"they look surprised. \'\'One 39-year-
An old woman who advertised said she felt compelled to sell her ideas to \"20-year-
Honest people who compete with yuppies.
So she made her nose, removed the bag under her eyes and re-shaped her chin.
She was very satisfied.
She even found a surgeon who promised to extend her 5-foot, 2-
Inches, by inserting six frames
She has an inch steel rod on her knee.
When he told her that she had to rest in a wheelchair for a year, she retreated.
A successful business manager
People in their 50 s are raving about cosmetic surgery.
From the pictures, she has always been very attractive.
Still, as she grows older, she wants to enhance and maintain what she has.
In the last five years, she has done nose work, chemical stripping, cosmetic surgery, eye work and collagen injections every six months to eliminate wrinkles, she is moving in the direction of breast surgery.
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\"My mom is 80 years old and she looks beautiful,\" she said . \".
\"I\'m not going to see it when I\'m 80.
But peer stress and fear of aging are not the only motivations. Dr.
John Sherman, a plastic surgeon in Manhattan, told the patient\'s story, saying, \"My life is not exciting,\" or, \"My marriage is about to break up\"or the teen-
She was not happy with the shape of her nose when she left her parents, but in any case sought surgery because her mother said it didn\'t look so good;
Or a young woman whose boyfriend took her to breast implants.
Advertising patients want people who are not possible, and patients who can\'t do anything about beauty improvement are other issues. Dr.
Sherman remembers 29-year-
The old woman who wants a plastic surgery.
She pushed her cheeks up with her fingers and asked, \"Can you make me like this ? \"?
I said, \"Of course, if you ask me to sew your fingers on your face. \' \'\'And Dr.
Los Angeles surgeon Ronald Sterling says a new patient appears in the office of a national surgeon --the cosmetic-surgery junkie.
He recalled a charming and slim woman in her early 30 s who had a successful career, and she initially saw him do nose work.
A year later, when he saw her again, she had made her eyes, her chin expanded and her chest was breast augmentation. Dr.
Stella agreed to lift her forehead and lift her face.
But when she expressed interest in liposuction, he refused.
\"I told her that she had a problem with perception and that someone should be seen in psychology.
However, he learned that she continued to undergo many liposuction and other operations performed by other doctors.
Liposuction, a method of sucking fat out of the body, has now become the most popular cosmetic surgery in the United States.
In 1986, nearly 100,000 fat surgeries were performed.
Now, \"Everyone wants to get involved, and a lot of doctors who are not qualified at all are doing this,\" said Dr. Sherman.
There is a risk: disability caused by severe exhaustion of fat clots, blood clots or body fluids, and pain, numbness and bruising for up to six months.
Since the introduction of the procedure from France six years ago, 11 people have died.
The mortality rate is low.
01%, but critics say that it is too much for a strictly cosmetic, non-medical procedure to have even one death out of 10,000.
Liposuction, for example, helps to re-interest people by transferring fat from one part of the body to another, from fat thighs to small breasts or faces.
But on last September, the American Association of Plastic Surgeons expressed regret for the use of this breast augmentation surgery, because fat transfer to the breast will dissolve, leaving calcium deposits similar to cancer, hindering cancer testing, lead to unnecessary biopsy.
Liquid silicone like injected into Elaine Young\'s face has been given to thousands of people in the past 30 years or so, but, like breast augmentation surgery, its use in plastic surgery never gets F. D. A.
One of the main supporters of liquid silicone is Dr.
Norman otterridge, a dermatologist in New York, said he has been injecting the drug for 35 years and has achieved great success and safety. Dr.
Orentreich believes that the casualties of silicone are caused by \"improper technology (
Single large injection)
And impure silica gel-
Reference to so-
It is called Sakurai formula, which contains 1% oil. Dr.
Orentreich said he used it.
He said that he obtained grade, purified, sterilized silicone from four sources or from the silicone made by himself.
He also used \"microcoils, more
Injection Technology with a syringe of his own design, which holds no more than \"fifty parts per million\" than \"3, 4, 5 million\" of a single syringe\"
Other doctors believe that the potential danger of liquid silicone far exceeds its possible value. Dr.
Kurt Wagner, a Los Angeles surgeon, said he had seen at least a dozen patients with facial disfigurement.
He described a person, \"as beautiful as Cyd Charisse\" before she injected silicone, who has now given her 17 surgeries to try to remove the silicone.
With the remaining silicone migration, he expects more surgery to be done.
Wagner said he also had a mastectomy for each of her silicone
The first doctor to do facial caresilicone work -not Dr. Startz -
He committed suicide, too. Wagner says.
Coincidentally,Wagner knew Dr.
Startz added, \"he did the right thing when he committed suicide.
He\'s a villain. \'\' Dr.
Sherman said he saw two or three patients disfigured by silicone injections every year.
He said that on last November, he examined a woman who had been injected with the drug.
A New York doctor grade silicone in five years.
\"Both of her cheeks have severe deformity, are very hard and have an ulcer, and one side of the face is drained.
\"It is incredible that the doctor who gave her the first injection, he said, proposed an additional injection of silica gel as a remedy. Dr.
Sherman advocates a ban on silicone injection. Dr.
Ernest Kaplan, plastic surgeon at Stanford Medical School
The author of a paper on silicone injections said he still sees one or two people each year suffering from severe inflammation due to silicone injections.
A good result is possible, but the risk factors I see are very important and I have to stop it from being used.
\"Compared to social and cultural issues, some observers are still less concerned about the actual risks of cosmetic surgery.
It is feared that it has become one of many ways to break the rich racial diversity.
Will the surgeon\'s scalpel help create a uniform standard of beauty?
So many Asian women have chosen their eyes to \"Westernize\" that many Iranian women --
American women in the Los Angeles area changed their tiny pert nose with their strong, unarched nose, the amazing teenager
In order to keep up with the current fashion trend, the breasts of the age model have become larger? According to the doctor
Singer Michael Jackson\'s Bellin had 10 surgeries. Dr.
Bellin built his analysis on the photos of the superstar, listing three rhinos (nose jobs);
Chemicals for facial skin or other skin
He had two surgeries on his chin, one of which was a rip;
Probably the fat attraction on his cheek.
Surgery to make the upper lip thin and eyelid plastic surgery (
Remove the skin from his lower eyelid).
A spokesman for Jackson said he had only had two surgeries.
Cosmetic surgery clearly requires a special kind of art because the surgeon must have the skills of a sculptor.
But is there anything disturbing about the beauty of working here?
Or, perhaps, lack of aesthetics?
Her face became harder and harder in June 1987
Elaine Young pleaded with a reluctant doctor, and his disfigurement became more and more painful.
Seifert tries to remove silicone.
He was alert and warned her of three possibilities of non-exclusivity: scars on the cheeks;
After the silicone is taken out, the big depression on her cheek, the facial muscles and part of her mouth are paralyzed because silicone can migrate to it.
Five people are hard.
Hourly procedure, doctor during this period
Seifert slowly cut off the quality of the hardened silicone on the right side of her face.
A fascia transplant from her skull to her face is necessary to support the skin.
He repeated the surgery on the left side to extract most of the silicone that he thought was injected into Elaine Young\'s face.
Miraculously advertised, she seems to be temporarily exempt from any major disfigurement, except for a slight paralysis on the left side of her mouth, which she says is improving.
She also had two eye surgeries to strengthen the silicone
Weakened eyelid muscles
\"I can\'t believe I did it,\" Elaine said softly . \".
Because I was told they could make me beautiful.
In the United States, licensed doctors can perform any medical surgery, including cosmetic surgery.
Doctors trained in the medical profession are called \"board certification\" in the profession \".
For example, the American Board of Plastic Surgery has demonstrated that doctors are \"allowed\" to perform all types of plastic surgery.
ENT physician (ear-nose-throat doctors)
Some other experts are certified to operate only above the collarbone, and their training now includes beauty procedures.
The American Committee of plastic surgery and the American Ent Committee are both recognized by the American Medical Professional Committee.
But any group can call itself a \"board \".
According to the doctor
Donald langsley, executive vice president of the American Medical Professional Council, has about 70 self-
The US Cosmetic Surgery Committee and other designated committees that are not recognized by the US medical Professional Committee.
Patients can call 312-491-
9091 find out if a particular doctor is certified professionally.
See a list of the two largest plastic surgery associations represented by the American Medical Association
American Association of Plastic Surgeons and American College of facial plastic surgery-
It can also give patients a certain degree of protection.
3,000 members ofS. P. R. S.
All boards are certified for plastic surgery from head to foot and patients can call 800-635-
0635 determine who is a member.
The medical community has considerable disagreement about who should perform what cosmetic surgery. Dr.
President Frank Cummerelect of the A. A. F. P. R. S.
He believes that \"doctors should only do the work they board\" and strongly oppose facial surgeons who work under the collarbone. The A. A. F. P. R. S.
Information Number 800-332-3223.
But these wars, known as \"scar wars\", have not had much impact in the way that many see the need for oversight committees and government regulation.
Even surgeons with impeccable credentials, including multiple board certifications, can perform surgery.
Not long ago, most men, if they want to improve their appearance, may be content to comb a little color through their hair.
However, more and more societies are undergoing cosmetic surgery suitable for anyone who wants a cosmetic surgery, and men will have a longer time --
There are lasting, more obvious improvements in appearance.
According to the American Association of Plastic Surgeons, 12% of all cosmetic surgeries are now for men.
In the other group, the American Society of Facial Plastic Reconstruction Surgery said that among all new face-lifting patients, the proportion of men was slightly higher than 33%.
Men want many procedures that their wives and mothers have been accustomed to for years.
Most often, the man\'s nose is reshaped.
The operation to tighten the drooping flesh around the eyes is the next popular operation. Dr.
Manhattan plastic surgeon John Sherman says his procedure has changed over the past three years and now 25% of his patients are male.
They seek \"liposuction under the chin and on the side, or what you call the love handle, and liposuction in the abdomen.
The husband and wife usually come to his office to consult him, he said.
\"Now,\" said the doctor.
Sherman, \"there is little difference in the target and psychological impact of surgery on men and women.
\"The men I see now are thousands more age points than they were 10 years ago,\" the doctor said.
Toby Mayer, Beverly Hills, California
He thought it was crucial to look good in today\'s society, speculating that the public began to ask, \"How much can I spend on this, which is not spiritual and will bring me that satisfaction? \' \'\' Dr.
Mayer pointed her eyes.
\"I have had surgery for myself,\" he said . \" He showed his partner Dr.
Sharon Romm in Washington, D. C. C.
Medical historians and writers plastic surgeons say older men are now experiencing the past of older women: they worry about their looks and try to look younger than their actual age.
Strangely, she saw the trend of male hair planting.
Balding is now considered sexy, she said.
\"Balding is related to the male hormone testosterone, and at least one folk belief is that men with balding have more testosterone.
\'\'Procedure, cost and risk of hair replacement surgery most of the hair and scalp is transferred from the lower back of the head to the balding area.
Possible complications: complications usually associated with surgery and anesthesia, such as bleeding and infection;
2-headache3 days. (
A single hair follicles can also be transplanted into a group.
The cost of this simple program ranges from $250 to $4,000. )
Cosmetic surgery usually lasts 2 to 10 years, but aging begins again after 2 years.
Risks include bleeding that can lead to the hematoma;
Difficulty in closing eyes;
The nerve is damaged and the smile is crooked.
Nose work recovery time, 1 week, some breathing difficulties during this period.
Relative risk of procedure-free.
Complications of eyelid swelling: difficulty in closing eyes;
In rare cases, the eyes are dry.
Breast expansion surgery takes about 2 hours;
Recovery time, 1 week.
Risk: implant contracts and hardening that require secondary surgery;
Implants may blur the breast tissue on a breast X-ray photo, making it difficult to detect cancer.
Breast reduction surgery takes about 3 hours;
Recovery time, 2 weeks.
Hazards include irregular breasts and decreased nipple sensation.
Due to effects such as weight gain or birth control pills, the breast will get bigger again.
Belly tucadvertis ads can cause the belly button to be misplaced. Liposuction (
Thighs, abdomen, hips)
Complications: risks associated with all surgery and general anesthesia, such as infection or cardiac arrest;
Permanent bruises or swelling; nerve damage;
Discoloration of skin;
Ann barbardach is a reporter and screenwriter in Los Angeles.
A version of this article appears on page 6006024 of the national edition of April 17, 1988, with the title The Dark Side of plastic surgery.