Introduction to solar water heaters solar panels are used to heat domestic water. The heating cost of domestic water accounts for about 25% of the total heating cost. The indoor and outdoor swimming pools are also heated with hot solar panels. A typical panel consists of a frame in which a drain is installed and filled with water. The water is heated by the sun and cycled from a hot solar panel by a small pump to the top of the household hot water tank, returning the cooler water at the bottom of the tank to the panel. This is the second article on the domestic use of renewable energy, in which we will look at a modern hot solar panel using glass vacuum tubes instead of ordinary tubes, a photovoltaic-driven circulating pump. In particular, we will look at the vacuum tube thermal solar panel assembly below. The frame supporting the tube is made of light metals such as aluminum, with a rectangular box shape of the side and bottom plate, insulated from heat transfer. After the assembly is installed, the UV is stable, and then the double glass cover plate bolts are fixed to the top of the frame that completes the panel frame. The glass TubeThe glass collection tube assembly contains silicone rubber tubes, which are laid for a long time and firmly fixed on the heat absorbing board. The absorbing plate operates vertically along the glass tube, acting not only as a solar collector, but also as a centralizer for the water pipe. The heat collected by the absorber is transferred to the silicone rubber pipe through which the water passes. The glass tube is then sealed so that the tube tail is protruding and placed under a permanent vacuum, effectively reducing any heat loss to the atmosphere. Many glass pipe components are installed in the frame, and the rear end of the silicone rubber pipe is connected to the inlet and outlet manifold at both ends of the frame. The manifold is terminated at an inlet and outlet pipe joint. Domestic water enters the inlet pipe sink at the bottom of the panel and rises through the panel when it is heated from the outlet of the top pipe sink. Since there is no antifreeze in the system, domestic hot water can be cycled through water tanks and solar panels in the direct heating system. In the case of solar panels using antifreeze, another coil must be installed on the existing water tank, or a brand new hot water tank with an extra copper coil. This is called an indirect system and must be used to separate the antifreeze mixture from the domestic hot water. The water from the solar panel outlet manifold enters the top of the hot water tank, and the cooler water at the bottom of the tank is pulled out and pumped back to the solar panel inlet manifold. Read on to learn about panel orientation and installation costs, return on investment cycle and CO2 savings. The panel orientation and maintenance panel is mounted on the roof of the House and ideally facing the South. In winter and spring, the sun is very close to the horizon, but in summer and autumn it just crosses the sky, enabling the panel to receive and collect more solar radiation. The panel installation engineer will have a table that tells him the best angle the panel should set, which is equal to the location latitude. However, he is controlled by the angle of the roof, usually at 45-60 degrees. Maintenance of the panel this requires keeping the glass clear panel away from leaves, moss and dirt. Due to safety issues, this is best done by your window cleaner every few months or so, maybe more frequently in the spring and winter when solar energy is the lowest, when a clean glass plate will collect the maximum available solar radiation. There are many suppliers of solar panels for cost, savings and return periods, and each supplier has a different return period, but these are very complicated and should be treated with caution. A quick way to figure out a specific panel return period is to collect the data listed below that should be calculated once a year. I have included about 30% of the government\'s domestic renewable energy grants. This was paid when a certified installation company successfully installed and debugged solar panels. A. Expected energy output of solar panels (kWh)B. Energy saving ( Kilowatt hours and pounds)C. Initial cost of purchase and installation (£ sterling)D. Maintenance costs (£ sterling)E. Government subsidies (£ sterling) Calculation of payback period & carbon dioxide storage E/B = the number calculated using A for the annual return period, the saved carbon dioxide emissions will depend on the current heating system (kWh) Multiplied by the kg of carbon dioxide emitted by the water heating type = carbon dioxide saving/year, using the figure calculated by (kWh) Multiplied by the kg carbon dioxide emitted by the water heating type = carbon dioxide saving/year. I have prepared a table in the drawing section at the end of the article stating the payback period and CO2 savings, using actual data. According to the table, the payback period is calculated in 12 years, saving an average of 0 carbon dioxide per year. 9Tonnes. This is based on the average price of the fluctuating energy cost/kWh and the vacuum type solar panel of 2. 8 m², output at 800- Compared with the traditional flat panel thermal solar panel manufacturers of the type of thermal solar panel described in the article, the following claims are made by the teckwhco2 footprint, 1. Their products are twice that of traditional thermal solar panels. -It is reported that this is supported by the data given in the University of Bath report (MG2008-SG-005). 2. Zero carbon solar hot water-as mentioned above, since the system does not use mains power, only the power 3 provided by PV is supported by the same report. The competitor\'s panel lost 8% of the output due to the loss of pipe arrangement and the use of the main power supply-I can\'t confirm the percentage, but the traditional plumbing system is indirect type and very inefficient, running the pump on the dry line will reduce the efficiency of the system. However, the above statement seems to bring a good carbon footprint to the vacuum solar panel.