The pneumatic muscles of pneumatic robots can be easily made using Oogoo. The advantage of these flexible silicone artificial muscles is that they are cheap and can be shaped almost easily to fit any robotic body. The introduction chart shows the six-segment elbow muscles, three-segment actuator muscles, and single-segment muscles under low pressure. The thumb chart shows artificial muscles without pressure. You can see here the robot arm and holder made using this artificial muscle: the artificial robot muscle is made by laminated a thin layer of Oogoo, a silicone rubber that can be cast of any thickness. For information on Oogoo, see here: the artificial muscle section is divided into two layers with a small piece of plastic between the two layers to allow air to swell. This creates a simple airbag that can be glued to many segments with a gasket to produce curved or straight robotic muscles. The first picture shows a 3d illustration of the six-segment silicone robot muscle. Ideally, an artificial robot muscle like this can be printed directly into one piece. I haven\'t found a 3d printer service that can print silicone or rubber for an affordable price. So now, I can only do illustrations and have to use manual techniques to make muscles. I am working on 3d printing of plastic molds that can be used to cast Oogoo robot muscles in one step. 12 3D is used to create illustrations. Step 2 the figure shows the fragments that make the six-segment robot muscles. Corn starch100 % silicone caulking glue cupsplastic bag1/16 \"thick plastic sheet. I use the phenol sheet that I have used, but it can be made of either polycarbonate, acrylic or any other plastic sheet material. 6 \"x 6\" plywoodsray paint from hardware store. 12 V Air/vacuum pump from: Amazon solenoid valve from: Amazon air hose. Amazon\'s comRaintree drip irrigation accessories. The ComCut plastic sheet two 6 inch square plastic 1/16 \"thick\" is secured together with three small bolt bolts and a 2 \"circle is cut on the roller saw to make the mold. The mould of the sheet is mounted on a piece of wood painted with paint to prevent it from sticking together. Small batches of Oogoo are mixed in bulk in plastic cups. I used 1/2 tablespoons of cornstarch and a tablespoon of 100% silicone caulking. You can add a small piece of artist oil painting to color it if you want. Iron the OogooRub and cover the mold with a lean straight plastic filled with Oogoo to form a 1/16 thick o Cut out the polyethylene air space plastic ring from the plastic bag and place it on the smooth first layer. It is cut at 1- 3/4 \"leave a gap at the edge of about 1/8\" ironing the second floor. The second layer of the table is placed in place, and the second layer of Oogoo is pressed -- Ed sealed the plastic bag ring between two layers. Once set, Oogoo does not stick to the bag, creating space for air filling. Later, a hole was drilled through a plastic bag circle to introduce air to the finished section. Step 4 figure shows the air muscles of the assembled six-segment robot under pressure. The first thumb photo shows the pieces that will bond with the Oogoo thin layer. The green part is the 1/16 \"part cast in the complete round mold, and then cut into the 3/4\" half widecircles. These create intervals that bond between inflatable circular segments. Oogoo will glue the Oogoo set up very well. It actually blends it together. The next thumb chart shows the assembled muscles. Drill a hole in all layers, then one end is sealed with Oogoo, and the other end is bonded with a silicone tube to introduce air. Step 5 figure shows the small 3- Pneumatic muscle with a diameter of 1 \"under pressure. The thumb picture shows the pieces used to make the muscles and then sticks them together. Step 6 figure shows the settings I used to test the robot\'s aerial muscles. The 12 v air pump is adjusted through the safety valve to provide air pressure of about 7 lb/sq ft. in. 12 v air valve controlled by Picaxe Micro A controller that also uses PWM to control the speed of the air pump. The details of this muscle controller may be included in future instructions if I have time. Step 7 the figure shows a method of using the six-segment robot aerial muscles for the robot\'s arms or fingers. The thumb chart shows muscle relaxation. Vacuum muscles so far, the muscles I make are stress muscles. I do this because they are the simplest actuators. It is also possible to make larger vacuum muscles that collapse under vacuum. This makes them closer to animal muscles and can be used with \"tendons\" to mimic natural movements. 3d printing should eventually be able to print bones, muscles and skin for the robot. This will make robots more cost-effective. My main interest is to make small robots 1 feet long or less. These low-pressure muscles are ideal. Even very small micro muscles can be made by painting or spraying on it. In order to make a very small robot, a smaller, quieter pump is needed. Several robot researchers are working on small chemical generators that make gas to provide pressure.