diy long lasting 36 cell solar panel (60 watts)
I don\'t have an electrical degree, but there is a lot of knowledge, tips and tricks about building solar panels on the internet and I want to consolidate my project, and share it with those who are also interested in making solar panels with quality materials over 15 years.
Most of the tools needed to build the aluminum frame.
To save a few dollars, I decided to make a framework myself.
My plan is to make a group to closely mimic a group that you can buy from a retailer, but reduce costs by doing it yourself from scratch.
The frame is the main part of your wallet that you will save by doing it yourself.
Well, it\'s obviously your own wiring.
A tape-measuring box cutter or scissors drill a metal-processed drill bit (
Make it a little easier to drill aluminum)
The speed square multimeter soldering iron fixture makes it easier to fill in the gun socket using the mitre box (
I listed these and just used as the weight of the weighing panel in series.
This will be more meaningful in the future. )
The materials come from several sources, but mainly from local hardware stores and eBay. (1 Pack)
9mm X 12mm corner support (4)1/16\" X 3/4\" -
36 \"aluminum horn strap lead-
Welding-free spare container mixing rod brush 100% silicon caulking (
At least 40 feet)Tabbing Wire (
Inches per month, lowest)
Bus Wire Flux Pen, Kester 186 Schotky diode, 6 amp axial type, the last four items were purchased from mlsolar on eBay. (36)
I purchased 3 \"X 6\" solar panels from mlsolar on eBay (1)
I got my solar Tite 386 S Silicon elastic solar cell filler from all electronics, which is a few feet long 10 MB wire waterproof 10 MB connector. com (6)
Wing Nut (1)
Tempered glass 1/4 \"thick 26 1/2\" x 32 1/4 (
I got mine at www.
Affordablesolarframes. com)Note: www.
Com has a bundle where you can get the glass and frame for $112 or you can get the glass like I did for $75, buy your own for less than $37.
If you want to buy the frame with it, it\'s up to you, and of course, it\'s much better quality than what I\'m doing here and comes with a stand that you can stick to the side to help install the finished panel.
Additional purchase: you end up with a charge controller, battery (
Preferably sealed lead-acid type, or deep circulation for more heavy power use)
, Power inverter, power grid connection inverter if you really want to replenish the electricity bill.
Solar panels absorb photons from the sun to stimulate electrons in silicon panels, resulting in the potential needed to generate electricity.
Wired solar panels allow power to flow through the charging controller to adjust the electrical flow of the battery to avoid overcharging and have the potential to damage a single battery or battery pack.
The battery can be directly connected to the power supply DC (DC)loads only.
If the power inverter is connected to the terminal of the battery, the socket (s)
Can be used for AC power supply (AC)loads.
Most power inverters recall the improved sine wave power inverter, but the pure sine wave inverter is more expensive.
The pure sine wave inverter will be more suitable for electronic use such as TV, laptop and game system.
These will make the picture clearer, and as we are used to, it will not be \"choppy \".
\"If the grid-connected inverter is connected, then the other end can be plugged into any outlet in your home, and the power generated by the solar panel will directly supplement your electricity bill.
Some solar arrays in The kW range can even drive your meter back and feed back the excess energy to the grid. (! ! !
For legal purposes, please check with local and national regulations and your power company about the grid-connected inverter! ! ! )
Wire: red = positive (+)
Black = negative (-)
In the wiring of electrical components, there are series and parallel wiring.
Parallel wiring means that the positive line is connected to another positive line, and the negative line is connected to the other negative line.
The wiring is connected in series, which means that the positive line is connected to the negative line, and the relevant negative line is connected to other positive lines.
Connecting the battery in series with the second battery will double the output voltage.
So if you have two series 12 V, 10 Am p hour deep cycle batteries, your result will be a valid 24 v, 10 amp hour battery pack.
Connecting the battery in parallel with the second C battery will double the amp hour usage, so if there are two deep circulating batteries connected in parallel for 12 V, 10 am p hours, your results will be valid 12 V, 20 am p hour battery pack.
Now, you may want to know what is the best wiring scheme for the battery pack.
Let\'s do some math first. . . I know! I know! Math! ? !
But please bear with me, not so bad :)
The battery I use in this Instructure is 12 v 10 AH (amp hour)battery.
This means that the power equation using the battery: V * A = Watt, 12 V * 10AH = 120 watt hours.
This means that if I have a 60 W bulb that is powered directly from the battery, 120 W/60 W = 2 hours of use value.
By dividing the watt hours by the number of watts of the load being used, the Watt units of the equation cancel and retain the time when the load can theoretically be used.
I\'m sure there\'s some kind of tolerance like /-
10% if I want to use a 60 W load for longer, you may be able to pull a few minutes after two hours or on the other side, less than two hours, I can wire another battery in parallel, double the amp hours to 20 AH, so there is a total of 240 watt hours.
Then I can now use the 60 W load for 4 hours instead of the 2 hours that only use one battery!
If your DC load is not using 12 V, but 24 V, you need to connect the battery in series so that the output voltage will be 24 V.
Finally, if you have a panel that is connected to a certain amp, like 5 amps, and you have a 10 Am p hour battery dead, it will take about 2 hours to fully charge the battery (
If you have a voltage panel higher than the battery, Ie.
18 V panel for 12 V battery, as I did in this manual).
I have seen deep circulating batteries in the 60AH range, for example, the same 5A panel, it takes 12 hours for the battery to fully charge.
The last note on the use of deep-cycle batteries is that these batteries are made specifically for full discharge and subsequent full charging over and over again, hence the name.
So if you plan to fully discharge the battery over and over again, or don\'t have a drive at all to check the life of the battery, then use the deep cycle battery.
Yes, right? !
I purchased the four aluminum corners described in the \"material\" step that need to be measured and cut.
These parts are 3 feet long and I need to mimic the dimensions described on the affordablesolarframes frame. com.
Therefore, 2 of the 4 pieces are cut into 27 inch and the remaining 2 pieces are cut into 33 inch.
If you look at the website mentioned above, I say 32 3/4, \"but I want to leave a little space to hide the wires later.
When I did the cutting, I did the cutting with a 45 degree cut mitre box and a hacksaw.
Make sure you\'re using the right 45 degree angle because I \'ve almost done a wrong angle and the angle inside will be facing the outside and it doesn\'t make sense.
I had to use a spare piece of wood as a spacer to get the cut through all the time as my mitre box was deep for my hacksaw.
But if you have a band saw. . .
You are lucky because you can finish the task in 5 minutes, unlike me yelling at my hacksaw because of fatigue.
Next, smooth all burrs on the edges using file or sandpaper.
I use the marker pen to know where to drill holes for the angle guard and drill them out.
Fixing the wrist guard with screws, the frame is a bit fragile due to my Hacksaw work, but still hard enough to do the job.
The last trick is to drill the hole closer to the top edge of the frame rather than the angle \"IN \".
You need space for tempered glass to install, and the tolerances can be too comfortable if you put your wrist guard at the right angle.
Drill two holes at the top of the frame, and the output line can also come out for later use.
This panel will be made in total using 4 strings of 9 cells (4*9)36 cells.
You can get them on eBay \"pre-tag\" with a little extra money, but from what I can see, the label line barely stretches out to the top of a single cell, so you re-
Soldering it or welding more tabbing wire to the nub is also a problem that needs to be dealt.
These cells are 0. 5V, ~3.
Each and cable will be in the 5A series. . . What? ? That\'s Right!
The finished panel is 18 v, or ~ 3. 5A!
If you just have a panel on 12 v and try to charge the 12 v battery, that won\'t be!
You need extra voltage boost to keep the potential difference to charge the battery.
In the \"material\" section, the picture showing the ownership table line in the small strip needs to be manually cut by itself.
Tabbing wire usually comes with a wire shaft, which is why I cut a piece of cardboard with a size of 3 inch.
I know what you\'re thinking, \"now that the stripes need to be 6 inch long, why not cut a piece of cardboard 6 inch long?
\"Well, I want to make sure that the wires cycle a little more than 6 inch around the cardboard because there needs to be a little gap between the cells.
Once you have 72 wires you need to apply a little flux on the two gray strips on the front of the solar cell and then use the soldering iron to weld it down like in the first photo.
There is solder on Tabbing wire, so don\'t worry about applying more.
You will know when the iron is hot enough, because the tabbing line will physically change a bit to blend with the solar cells.
I only label the front of all 36 cells.
I would like to do this first and test each individual cell in the sun to make sure they are not defective or that I am not overheating during a label or similar fiasco.
Test the voltage of the battery as early as possible and often prevent huge headaches. . . no. . .
Migraine, later in the wiring.
The next step is to weld the tabbing line on the front of the panel to the back of the next unit.
As shown in Figure 2, this is connected wiring.
Connecting the front of the battery to the back of the next battery is the reason to increase the voltage of the finish panel.
Figure 1 shows where the flux is applied, and Figure 2 and Figure 3 show some techniques for stable welding.
Thanks to the tips and marks on the tape from YouTube\'s Dan Rojas GreenPowerScience affordablesolarframes.
Selected com (Or screwdriver)tip.
These two tips make things very simple and cheap.
I see people doing tile work with these \"X\" stuff to free up their cells, but I think it\'s a waste of valuable space and money.
When you connect all 4 rows and 9 cells, you need some extra tabbing wire behind the butt of the row.
So we can put together rows of cars.
You will notice this on figure 4.
Let\'s take a break from those delicate cells, shall we? !
I want to get the glass to the frame and let it dry when dealing with rows of cells.
Here you just need the silicone cauldron and apply it to the inside of the frame.
Apply it in the middle and let it penetrate under the glass, but do not apply to the left wall where it will \"climb\" the angle or drop in front of the glass.
I just want to say that I chose this combination of glass and aluminum for quality reasons! ! ! (
Emphasis on quality)
You do not want to use plexiglass, wood or annealing glass in the frame.
The organic glass is scratched by branches and other things.
Dust will pile up plastic if you live in a sunny dessert.
The annealing glass breaks if too much pressure is applied, whether it\'s a snow build up or something else falls on it.
The wood frame will twist and will break your delicate solar cells.
I would like to reiterate that the manufacturing life of this solar panel will last for 15 years or more (
Hope more :))
So, yes, apply the silicone to the frame, put it on the glass and press it down to ensure good contact and let the Silicone dry (
The night is definitely the best)
Use spacers such as spare wood to protect the floor, carpet, or table.
No matter what the frame is.
You don\'t want to pull up small carpets with your dry silicone.
The picture here shows what the final product looks like about these cells.
The idea here is to keep the panels in series. (
So far, you might say, \"Oh my God, I \'ve got it! Series, yeah. \")
I mentioned that you need to tag behind the butt of a row of cells.
This is because your cells are wired backwards and wired backwards.
Therefore, we need to continue this by backing these lines back to back.
I mean my picture here.
The busbars are not welded in place and show a roadmap on how to complete the wiring of the series.
You need to flip around two of the four rows, which is why you need to tag behind the cell.
The busbars are just a larger version of their tabbing wire counter, but I would suggest adding some welding to ensure the connection between the bus and tabbing wire.
This is the reward for hard work!
Now that the unit is done, we need to add the output line.
Since this is a 60 w panel, I chose to use line 10.
Preheating the wire just means that you heat the raw copper and add a solder in it.
This makes it easier to weld wires to the bus waaaaay.
Just put the raw copper on the bus, and if you want it to stick together, welding will take forever.
After welding, I added some silicone to increase the reinforcement.
The strapping belt will help to hold things in place and the socket will also weigh the bus when appropriate.
Prepare the resin by adding a silicone border.
This will prevent the resin from coming out of the glass edge and the back of the panel itself.
Every drop of glue is very important!
The resin filling agent is a two-part system that will harden once combined.
The amount you need per drop of resin is usually 16 ounces. set like this.
I used an extra butter knife for my mixer.
I have an extra square container in the photo because you really want to pour the resin out of the original container into the spare container and then go back to the original container a few times, to ensure that all cracks are in full contact with the care agent.
If you choose to skip the pouring tips, chances are you\'ll have some spots that look cheesy forever.
The silicone border will help to keep the position of the resin in order to get as much resin as possible on the back of the cell.
In the end, the resin will penetrate into all the corners and gaps.
This is where the pastry brush in the photo can easily spread it around.
You want a nice coat.
When your panel is set up, it\'s nice to have it sit in a cool place.
It takes a while, it\'s good!
It will take you a long fix so that the bubbles will rise to the top and pop up.
Foam is not a bad thing, but it is better to avoid it.
If your resin takes a long time to solidify and still feels \"sticky\", you can put it next to a sunny window.
Use solar energy! quality resin.
Don\'t go out and buy cheap epoxy, because after a lot of exposure to direct sunlight, your panel will turn yellow, which will affect the efficiency of your panel over time.
As I mentioned before, I am setting up a ten-year group instead of a few summers! !
PS don\'t put the cardboard on the back of the panel to protect it when the panel is dry!
It droops, dries and sticks to the resin and destroys the panel by cracking your battery.
I used some wire wing nuts to complete the wiring from the panel to the rain-proof connector.
I got the waterproof connector from all electronics.
Com and it\'s one piece and needs to cut it in half and then connect it to the 10 KW grid line with a wire.
It turned out to be difficult to weld, mostly with tinning, so that\'s why I use wire wing nuts.
In the end, I want to weld them together and protect it with a shrink pack and possibly more silicone.
The panel is then connected to the charging controller, the controller is connected to the battery, and then the charging is started.
In a very short period of time, the battery is charged from the initial 12. 8 to 13.
3 V live there.
Then the charging controller is working!
Solar energy for household equipment without carbon dioxide or pollution.
As mentioned earlier, the battery performs a DC load and getting the inverter will convert the 12 v dc to 120 v ac to power the power unit that requires 120 V.
Get more wired batteries and be fully charged, which will help with power outages so you don\'t worry about gas generators with loud noise.
Or you can build more panels and grids and tie it directly to the House to replenish your bill (
If your power company/state allows).
I hope this will remove the obstacles that you make your own high quality solar panels.
I just watched a lot of videos, read a lot of articles and prepared a lot for me.
Making this panel set me back about $150, but compared to buying the quality 60 w panel for $250 --
I will accept it.
It was actually fun to build, kept me busy and expanded my electrical knowledge.
I hope this will inspire you to build your own house and save some money! Enjoy.