[ Slightly] Illustrations After reading this chapter, you should be able to * show the knowledge of the ingredients requirements and functions of the cake mix. * Mix various cake bases using the process outlined in this chapter. * Determine the edible degree of all types of cakes described in this chapter and implement appropriate storage techniques. * Troubleshoot cake mixing by checking the process, including testing to measure the temperature, pH and specific gravity of the cake beater. An Introduction to cake mixing and baking an in-depth understanding of cake mixing and baking is important for pastry chefs as it goes into the many sweets they make. They must also have a thorough understanding of the features of the cake and how to pair the cake with other dessert ingredients. This chapter explores three important considerations for mixed cakes of different types: ingredients, recipes, and processes. In addition, the baking process and quality monitoring are also checked by tracking the specific gravity, batter pH and batter temperature. Cake features two types of cake are fat Foundation and egg foambased. In these categories, several mixing types may apply only to one cake or one cake. For example, the Aspirin Enteric-coated Tablets food method is used only for Aspirin Enteric-coated Tablets food cakes, while cream is used for many types of cakes. FAT- Fat-based cake Base cakes are usually stronger and more dense than foam cakes. The large presence of fat and sugar in these cakes also makes them more moist and has a finer breadcrumb structure. Although fat- Cakes based on chemical reagents are usually fermented, and some varieties also get the fermentation force from the air during the cream process, which is added to the batter. Fat- The traditional cake is more American. Style cakes because they are more dense, richer and wetter than foam Cake with butter Cream and other rich icing sugar. The fat used for this cake ranges from butter to shortening to liquid shortening. Depending on the type of fat used, different methods may vary. Not all methods, for example, for high Fat cake is made of cream fat and sugar; Instead, they are more based on a thorough mix of all ingredients in a specific order. The batter can be thick or liquid. The most common method of fat- Cream based on cake, improved cream, high Than, liquid crisp sponge. FOAM- Foam cake The base cake is always based on the foam of the whole egg, egg yolk, protein or combination that has been beaten. Eggs, depending on the type of cake- To help increase the volume, the base composition may need to be heated before stirring. Once the foam is reached, gently fold the dry ingredients screened and bake the cake immediately. Foam cake is usually lighter and more fragile than fat Cake based on more dry and open crumbs. Examples of bubbles The cakes here include Gino silk cake, biscuit jaconde cake, chiffon cake and Aspirin Enteric-coated Tablets cake. The method used to make foam cakes is usually different from the product they are named after. Sponge, separate egg sponge, chiffon and Aspirin Enteric-coated Tablets food are included. Ingredient selection and functional cake ingredients play a vital role in the mixing and baking process. The specific features and functions described in this chapter apply only to cakes. More information about cake ingredients can be found in online companions, to download information about cake ingredients, going to flour cake flour is usually made with soft white wheat or soft red winter wheat 45 ~ 65% of the powder rate is relatively low, the powder rate is low, and the gluten and protein content are low; The average protein content of cake powder is 7-9%. Although a certain amount of protein is needed to help maintain the structure, too much protein can cause hard and dry crumbs. Grind cake powder into a small particle size that is conducive to absorption, uniform bread crumbs and symmetrical cake (Pyler, 1988, p. 912). After grinding the flour, bleach it with chlorine to improve the baking quality of the flour. This process reduces the pH value, achieves better liquid absorption, and improves the volume and overall texture (Pyler, 1988, p. 914). The absorption of the flour is improved because the starch of the flour is transformed from chlorine treatment. Because the chlorine treatment weakens the gluten, the texture is enhanced. Other flour such as pastry flour- Flour for cakes can also be used for mixing cakes. However, for the high In cake recipes, cake powder is the only flour that can absorb all the liquid used in these recipes. In addition, baking flour and baking soda (baking soda) Produce carbon dioxide. In addition to flour, starch can also be added to the cake formula. It is best to use modified starch or pre-adhesive starch. These starch expands quickly under the action of cold water and hydration, maintains moisture, and allows for a more sticky batter than using flour only. The increased viscosity helps keep the air pool in the emulsion created during mixing. Since the baking temperature of the cake is not high enough to set the starch, no ordinary starch is used, resulting in a thicker grain of the cake. In some applications such as the use of fat-starch can replace shortening oil or lotion Free Cake or muffins. Fat has three main characters in the cake mix. It helps to capture the air from the mixing into the batter to help with fermentation, it produces soft light to improve the texture by coating all the starch and protein of the flour, and help to keep the smooth emulsion needed for smoothtextured cakes. It should also be realized that fat provides flavor if butter is used. The choice of cake mixed fat includes liquid vegetable oil, butter, creamy solid shortening oil and liquid shortening oil. The choice of fat needs to change the formula, procedure, mixing time and tools of the mixer. For example, liquid oils are easily dispersed, hard fats are not dispersed, and liquid shortening oils that are easily dispersed add additives and stabilizer. There is no need for too little mixing to form an emulsion with the cake with the emulsion shortening. The stirring time and stirring speed should be closely monitored, especially when the emulsion is shortened. Sugar and sugar can be classified as tenderers. The presence of sugar in cake sticks affects taste, texture, physical properties, and retention quality as it helps to keep moisture. Ultra-fine sugar is better when sugar is needed, but sometimes powdered sugar can be used, especially in some sponge cakes. Pour sugar is also used in some recipes. It helps to keep the crumbs soft and tender, especially chocolate and coffee --flavored cake. The eggs in the cake are mixed and baked, and the combination of water content, protein, fat and egg yolk in the eggs provides a unique function. Eggs are used to replenish, tenderize, ferment, moisturize, color and season the cake batter. The quality of eggs should always be high. Eggs are one of the ingredients that contribute the most to the emulsion by using the whole egg, egg yolk or white. Lotion is the most important part of building the final texture of cake crumbs. The bubbles produced by the emulsion yield to the expansion of the cake batter. Bubbles act as leavening agents, increasing the size as the evaporation of moisture in the batter and the carbon dioxide gas produced by the baking powder ( Fermented acid baking soda). The formation of so many bubbles in the emulsion state is unique to cake mixing. The stability of the egg foam emulsion is based on the introduction of air into the water- Protein matrix of eggs. The mixing process and mixing speed are very important to produce a stable emulsion with uniform size bubbles. Let\'s take a look at the straw in the water and see how it works. Blowing air with a straw in the water is similar to slow stirring. If you blow too fast with a lot of force, some big bubbles will reach the surface very quickly. If you blow gently, many small bubbles will slowly rise to the surface because they are small, and the weight of the water will slow them down. The same phenomenon can be seen more clearly in the batter, because sugar and fat are thicker and more sticky than water. When stirring the protein or the whole egg, they should be stirred at a slower speed to start forming a uniform foam composed of small bubbles. When this texture is reached, it can be mixed at a higher speed to introduce air more quickly. The structure of small bubbles will help capture the air that enters at a higher speed. When the appropriate volume is reached, the speed should be reduced to medium to enhance the emulsion. This breaks any big bubble and makes the whole emulsion more uniform. Over- Stirring the egg foam will destroy the lotion, especially if a small amount of sugar is added. If the egg foam becomes \"dry\", it will be difficult to integrate into the base batter, causing the emulsion to break. It is very important to monitor the development of egg foam. For some cakes such as Aspirin Enteric-coated Tablets foods and genoise, the lotion is produced only by eggs. The stability and quality of the emulsion is critical as it is the only fermentation system for the cake. Liquid is an important part of cake mixing because they moisturize the crumbs and make the cake delicious. The liquid that helps the texture of the cake is soft, including water, sour cream, eggs and dairy products. When using liquid, the proper moisturizing performance of each ingredient must be taken into account. The leavening agent creates a light texture in the cake. The main fermentation system used in the cake is mechanical and chemical. Although stirring and cream are very effective ways to introduce bubbles into the batter system, further fermentation is usually required ( Except for the real sponge cake). The most commonly used chemical leavening agent for small bakeries is baking soda and baking powder. Double- Agent baking powder is available for a variety of purposes. A special mixture with a specific reaction rate is used for mass production of a specific cake strip or dough for optimal results. Baking powder is a mixture of non-reactive buffers such as fermented acid, baking soda and corn starch. The combination of these components is called the medium and the value (NV). The medium and the value are measurements of the available acidity of the fermented acid. NV is used to determine the amount of fermented acid or acid required to provide a neutral pH when combined with baking soda. NV represents the number of parts in baking soda that can be neutralised by 100 part of fermented acid. Fermented acid and soda are balanced to ensure that there is little left after baking. The balance of some products such as chocolate devil food cake is towards a higher pH value, which gives the product a signature color and flavor feature. The purpose of providing baking powder and baking soda for this cake at the same time is to create these features. The pH value of most cakes is neutral; However, the pH value of some foods such as Aspirin Enteric-coated Tablets food cakes is really low. To achieve this, the additional fermented acid (Tartar cream) To make the cake whiter, add to it the closer crumbs. Large- The size manufacturers of cakes and biscuits use a special mixture of baking soda and fermented acid instead of baking powder to thoroughly control the fermentation of the products being produced. To help with this task, the manufacturer producing fermented acid has determined the acid level required to reach the neutral value of sodium bicarbonate. The precision process at the manufacturing level has earned this neutral value for food manufacturers. These neutral values represent the level of acidity determined by the process known as the titration method. Figure 14- 1 shows the most common fermented acids used in the baking industry, their abbreviations, values, and reaction properties. The medium and value are used to calculate the amount of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) Need to neutralize fermented acid. Calculate the amount of fermented acid, * Determine the flour weight of the formula * calculate the soda weight: the average percentage of soda is 1. 2 to 2% according to the weight of flour (cake flour). * Divide the soda weight by the medium and value of the selected acid; For example, soda ash x 100/NV if two Fermentation Acids are selected, the amount of fermentation acid is calculated for each fermentation acid, respectively. In order to neutralize the product, the fermented acid is selected according to the final product and use. Depending on whether the product is baked immediately or stored in cold storage, refrigerator or dry mix, different fermented acids can be used. Figure 14- 2. Some suggestions were made. This is a common combination of two people. Agent baking powder in cake: * mcp sapp salp * sas mcp * Corn MCP Corn starch is usually added as a carrier to minimize the damage of moisture to acid. Place for cake mixing and baking specific cakes- The mixing process determines that everything from Zoom to pan and bake uses a specific device. Depending on the size of the operation, different configurations can be used. For example, a small bakery can mix cake batter in a planetary mixer, while a larger bakery can mix the same style batter in a continuous mixer. In a small bakery, the cake will most likely be baked in a rack oven, a rotary oven, a convection oven, or a small deck oven, but in a larger commercial bakery, A tunnel or tour oven is likely to be used. The effective cake mixing of small items depends on a variety of small items, including spatula, whiskey, Bowl Shovel, parchment paper, color knife, paper tray, cake tray and bains-marie. Special mixers are usually used for two mixers where cakes are mixed. The planetary mixer is usually used in small and medium-sized enterprises and works well. size bakeries. When the volume increases, the continuous mixing system facilitates the creation of more consistent and productive results. The large planetary mixer can be equipped with a vacuum or a pressurized bowl to control the emulsion and temperature. The continuous mixer processes the emulsion when the ingredients are fed into the machine. It can be done in one or two stages. For the one- Stage Mixer, all the ingredients are mixed together, placed in a tank and pumped to the milk head. Number of monitors. When the slurry mixture is pumped in the head of the emulsion, air is introduced at the same time, and the slurry is mixed. Control the quantity of slurry and air as well as the speed of the emulsion mixing head to achieve the suitable emulsion. For the two- Stage method, ingredients according to formula. The most common cake produced using this method is chiffon cake. If required, it is made from egg yolk, sugar, oil, flour, leavening agent and water, as well as any condiments such as cocoa powder or vanilla. The pulp is placed in a tank. In a separate can, mix the protein, sugar, and some tartar cream to dissolve the sugar. No emulsion occurred. Then, pump the protein into the head of the emulsion to make the egg foam. Control the rotation to monitor the mixing and introduce air to help with the formation of the emulsion. After mixing the protein, fold it into the paste batter inside the static mixer. The static mixer is a pipe with a spiral blade inside ( Imagine the DNA chain) When the two media are pumped, they rotate and fold together. When the cake batter comes out of a static mixer, it can be deposited directly in a cake tray, depositor, Hopper or tunnel oven on a specially designed baking surface ( Especially jelly rolls). A variety of ovens can be used for cake baking, including a rotary oven, a convection oven, a rack oven, a deck oven, and a tunnel oven. Special consideration must be given to each oven type. The baking time and temperature are different. The general guidelines for cake mixing and baking have guidelines for cake mixing and baking, which can help ensure the success of the finished product if followed. Cake mixing and cake baking both require a great deal of attention to detail and control of the preparation methods of ingredients and equipment. All ingredients should be scaled before any mixing or stirring starts. Any necessary preparation of the ingredients, including screening and heating, should also be complete. This preparation will enable close monitoring of the mixing process. All paper and cake trays should be ready to fill and put on the right grill before the mix starts. High- The fat cake pot should be sprayed without sticking, and the bottom should be lined with parchment paper. No foam cake tray may be sprayed, but a parchment circle should be placed at the bottom of the pan. Although according to the formula, the mixing guide will be very different, there are some important considerations for both fats Cake and foam cake are the main ones. For fat- Based on the cake, it is especially important to scrape down the bowl as the mix progresses to ensure a uniform addition of the ingredients. For foam cakes, it is essential to stir egg products to the right stage and fold dry ingredients gently, efficiently and thoroughly. Distribution by weight is the best option to maintain consistency when filling the pan. The semi-automatic filling system helps to distribute batter, especially in shops that process a large number of cakes. In this case, the distribution is done by volume. Once the batter is scaled, it should be expanded to spread evenly. To put the cake in the oven as quickly and effectively as possible, this should happen after all the batter is sorted. The first step in baking a cake is to preheat the oven. For the type and size of the cake, baking at the right temperature is also essential. Typically, smaller cakes require a higher baking temperature and a shorter baking time. The bigger the cake, the lower the baking temperature, the longer the product will take in the oven. Temperature and baking time will affect the reaction speed of fermented acid. Double- Agent baking powder works in two stages. Phase 1 release fast The acid that plays the role of fermentation, usually calcium phosphate (MCP) , And carbon dioxide when mixed. Phase two releases a slow Fermentation acid like sodium pyrophosphate (SAPP) Or sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP). These temperatures need at least 105 [degrees]F (41[degrees]C)to 110[degrees]F (43[degrees]C)to react. If the batter does not reach this temperature fast enough, the cake will form a shell to prevent the proper expansion of the cake. If the oven is too hot, it will produce the same effect, forming a dark shell on the bottom and top of the cake. The reaction rate is the time required for fermentation acid to release 60% of the gas, related to temperature. The oven between cake trays requires enough space to promote a uniform circulation of air and even bake. Steam, available for high- By keeping the surface soft, the proportions and cream cakes can be expanded better and never used for foam cakes. Once the cake has been baked, it is critical not to check too fast for not being delicious. If the protein and starch have not been gel yet, opening the oven door or moving the pan too early may cause the pan to fall. Because cakes like cookie jaconde are baked in 7 minutes, while other cakes like genoise can take 25 minutes, it is impossible to provide a specific schedule for donations. Before the cake is removed from the oven, it is important to test whether there is a donation. Moving them too much before baking is done can result in insufficient volume and damaged crumbs. When testing, it is important to check the following: * slight shrinkage from the side of the pan to reach highfat cakes. * Due to stable, open crumbs, it will be a little elastic when gently pressing with your fingers. * Proper coloring of the surface. * After inserting in the middle of the cake, there is a clean cake tester. HIGH- Since the atmospheric pressure is lower than sea level, baking at high altitude will cause problems for baking. This makes the product more difficult to rise during baking. Therefore, the fermented yeast products can be easily controlled by reducing yeast. Cake needs more attention. The structure of the cake is more fragile than the structure of the dough. For products with eggs, an increase in the number of eggs helps maintain the structure with additional protein. High for sponge cakes and genoise with lots of eggs Baking at altitude does not pose a challenge like in cream, high Scale and mixing methods. Where the altitude is greater than 2,000 feet, all baking powder, baking soda and tartar cream should be reduced by 15%, and 5 to 8% per 1,000 feet thereafter. Any cake with reduced liquid or cake containing emulsifier, the mixing time should be shortened by 40%. The weight of eggs should be reduced by 4 to 10%. In contrast, water is also reduced. Baking temperature should be increased to help build the color and set the protein faster. Cooling and storage appropriate cooling and storage techniques are critical to the quality of the cake. If you let the cake cool in the pan, it will sweat and the cake will absorb the excess water. In addition, hot plates can significantly dry thinner cakes, such as cookie jaconde, after baking. After the cake is completely cooled, it can be wrapped in plastic wrap. If you wrap them up during warm times, the moisture and warm environment in the cake will make them easy to mold and grow bacteria. The shell is sticky and hard to freeze. Cream cake and premium cake Than the cake should be taken out of the pan 10 to 15 minutes after coming out of the oven and should remain cooled to room temperature before packing. The big cake should be quickly and evenly transferred to the shelf for cooling. The flakes of jaconde or genoise should be transferred to a cardboard pan at room temperature to prevent excessive drying. Aspirin Enteric-coated Tablets food cake and chiffon cake should be cooled in the pan, up- There is enough air flow. Whenever the cake is turned out of the pan, it should be poured on a clean, flat, cool surface or on a wire rack. The package of the cake should be airtight. Undecorated cakes, which can be stored in the refrigerator for up to 1 month if properly packaged, should be labeled and dated. Inventory should be rotated regularly to ensure the best products. HIGH- High fat cake The fat cake is characterized by a high content of the crisp, such as butter, or an emulsion crisp in the form of hard or liquid. The typical mixing process of butter cake is the cream method, which incorporates the air into the batter. For liquid shortbread, the mixing process incorporates the air into a smoother batter. When mixed high Fat cake, the most important step is to scrape the bowl down three to four times to ensure the ingredients and good Emulsion batter Cake Mixing: cake made by the cream method is based on the main effect of cream butter and sugar together, and this process is similar to the cream method of biscuits. This approach may also be the most challenging, especially if it is a fullbutter cake. Replace hard fat, such as emulsion (high-ratio) Usually add shortening to these cakes. In addition, a booster emulsion is used to increase the stability of the ingredient emulsion. If an all- Butter Cake is the target, it needs to pay attention to the details, including the temperature of the ingredients, the speed and speed of the addition. Creaming method process * enlarge all ingredients and eat them at room temperature. * Mix the fat to smooth and soft, then add sugar. Mix to light and fluffy. Scrape the bowl down * Add in the cream stage if melted chocolate is needed. * Add eggs gradually. ( See Creaming method 14-3, Step 1. ) Light and fluffy whip. Scrape the bowl down * Add the screened dry ingredients and extra liquid at the appropriate stage. * Add dry ingredients in four servings. ( See Figure 14 of the Creaming method-3, Step 2. ) * Add wet ingredients in three parts. * Always Add dry ingredients first and then wet ingredients. ( See Figure 14 of the Creaming method-3, Step 3. ) * Always end the mixing with the last part of the dry ingredients. Scrape the bowl, paddle and deposit as needed. ( See Figure 14 of the Creaming method-3, Step 4. ) Pot preparation and makeup of cake prepared using cream method should be sprayed with non-stick spray or prepared with butterflour mixture. Next, a parchment circle should be placed at the bottom of the pan to ensure easy release after baking. In terms of cake making, some bakeries use pan liners similar to cupcakes. They cover the bottom and sides of the cake pan. By doing so, they avoid lubrication and cleaning of the pan. In addition, the bottom and sides of the cake are covered so that it can be packed no longer. For this method, the cake batter should be stored by weight. After deposition, the surface should be flat. The batter of these cakes is usually at least half of the pot at a price of £ 2 inch (5 cm)cake. Cake Mixing: the improved cream method relies on the basic cream method process and then folds in the crisp skin that has been stirred to medium soft peaks. The addition of the crispy skin adds additional fermentation capacity and creates a lighter final product. Once the crisp skin is folded, the batter must be placed in the prepared pan and baked without delay. Cake Mix: high Ratio method The characteristic of the cake is that the ratio of sugar and liquid components to flour is very high. These cakes use a special shortening oil that has been added with the help of the emulsion to help with the emulsion of more liquid ingredients and fat. The process of high- Proportional cake mixing first coat all dry ingredients with fat and then mix slowly in the hydrating ingredients. Check the mixing time and the scraping bowl is mixed high-ratio cakes. Mixing occurs at different speeds and quality control and consistency must be monitored through time. High- Proportional process * proportion of all ingredients and at room temperature. * Dry material added to the screen ( Sugar Free) Then add to the mixing bowl and add the shortening oil. (See High- Figure 14-ratio method-4, Step 1. ) * Mix at low speed for 2 minutes, scrape off the bowl and continue mixing at low speed for 2 minutes. Scrape the bowl down * Add a portion of sugar and milk or water. Mix at low speed for 4 minutes. Scrape the bowl a few times. (See High- Figure 14-ratio method-4, Step 2. ) * Combine the remaining liquid with the egg and add the batter in three stages. (See High- Figure 14-ratio method-4, Step 3. ) * Scrape the bowl between each addition. * The final mixing phase should last about 5 minutes. * Deposit by weight in a pan of oil-coated, paper paste half the edge of the pan and bake without delay. (See High- Figure 14-ratio method-4, Step 4. ) Cake Mixing: development of liquid shortening method ( Shortened partial hydrogenation) With the addition of additives, cake manufacturers who rely on a shortened fat base benefit. These short cables are quickly and easily dispersed throughout the batter, but they need to pay special attention to the mixing time and speed. When the batter is pumped, the air is added and plays an extra role in fermentation. Liquid shortening process * place all liquid ingredients in a mixing bowl with paddle attachments. * Add the screened dry ingredients on the basis of the wet ingredients. * Mix at low speed for 11/z minutes or until all ingredients are added. * 4 minutes on high speed. Scrape the bowl down. * 3 minutes at medium speed. * Fill the pan with oil and paper paste in half of the pan and bake without delay. Note: it is recommended that you obtain the technical documentation with the option of a shorter mixing time. The mixing time is related to the aid included in the shortening. FOAM- Foam cake Cake based on egg products as leaveners for making light cakes. Whole eggs, egg yolks and protein can be used alone or in combination. For specific information on handling eggs and successfully stirring foam, please refer to the discussion on egg foam in chapter 15. When you make a bubble Based on the cake, the mise en place must be ready as the process is not interrupted. Planning ahead will ensure that egg foam is processed quickly and that cake quality is not affected by time at all stages of mixing, makeup and baking. Egg foam cake: the basic sponge method uses the basic sponge method to make a sponge cake, often referred to as genoise. There are butter sponges, milk and butter sponges. Egg foam cake made of sponge is high Some consumers think they taste \"fat \". They are often used by more Europeans. Style cake, the dry texture is usually solved by soaking the cake with light cake syrup during assembly. Basic sponge process * scale all ingredients and sift through the dry ingredients. * Mix the whole egg with sugar and heat it on Bain Mary is mixed up. * Whip- High speed with stage. Add any seasoning at the end of this stage. ( See Figure 14-basic sponge method-5, Step 1. ) * Gently fold the dry ingredients of the sieve. ( See Figure 14-basic sponge method-5, Step 2. ) * Deposit three paper pots without oil The way of 4 months has risen by 2 inch (5 cm)pan. Bake without delay. ( See Figure 14-basic sponge method-5, Step 3. ) * Cool upside- If there is a tendency to deflate the cake, let it go. This will vary depending on the quality of the flour used. * Take it out of the pan and use or store it in the refrigerator for later use. Egg foam cake: sponge change two major sponge cake changes add extra liquid and moisture, soften the crumbs and enrich the taste. These ingredients must be carefully added to avoid excessive mixing of batter. The butter sponge method follows the same procedure of the basic sponge method by adding dry ingredients. Then fold the melted butter thoroughly and be careful not to mix the batter over. Handle the batter as quickly as possible in the same way as the basic sponge. The hot milk and butter sponge melt the milk and butter together. Fold the milk- After adding the flour, put the butter mixture into the base sponge bottom in three stages. Do not overmix. Egg foam cake: the separated egg sponge method combines the extreme luminous ability of egg protein with the richness and smaller volume created by the whole egg and egg yolk. The whole egg and egg yolk is used in the base foam and provides a high level of fat, which gives this cake a rich taste. The important thing is not to over Because this will greatly affect the volume. These cakes are high in sugar and fat, ensuring a soft texture, which makes them useful for roulade or cakes that need to be rolled. When scouring separate egg sponge cakes for roulade, it is crucial not to use batter too much, otherwise the volume will be lost. The batter should be processed first according to the length of the paper tray and then by width. Separate egg sponge process * scales all ingredients and performs at room temperature. Sift the dry ingredients. * Stir the whole egg, egg yolk and sugar to the ribbon stage. * Stir white and sugar to mediumstiff peaks. * Grind the protein into the whole egg mixture. ( See Figure 14-separate egg sponge method-6, Steps 1-2. ) * Gently fold the dry ingredients of the sieve. Do not overmix. ( See Figure 14-separate egg sponge method-6, Step 3. ) * Stored on silicone pad Line up the pot and bake without delay. * After baking, transfer to a cool surface to prevent excessive drying of the cake. * Use as needed, or store in a covered refrigerator for later use. Egg foam cake: biscuit JACONDE method biscuit jaconde method is a variant on the method of separating egg sponge. It features the addition of nut flour to the cake batter and the design applied through a thicker batter. Cookie jaconde is usually baked on a pan with thin paper. Nut flour can come from any nut, but the taste and texture of almonds are preferred. People often ask for almond powder to pour in Tan (TPT) 1 portion of almond powder, another portion of powdered sugar or granulated sugar ( Although in this book, all preparations for TPT require powdered sugar). The design part of the cake is created with a template, using a dense cake-like batter (pate a decor) On the silicone pad Parchment paper may be used, but when the cake is in contact during baking, it will distort the cake and create wrinkles and pull the paper into the cake. Next, freeze the stamp of the batter to make it firm, then place the cake batter on it and apply it with an offset spatula. During baking, the highlights attach to the cake and form a surface with a pattern. Then beat TPT with the whole egg, and beat the protein separately to the soft peak with extra sugar. When both foam reaches full volume, White is folded into the whole egg Then fold the flour inside. Sometimes Add softened butter to the bottom of the whole egg. Cookie Jaconde method: enlarge all ingredients and eat them at room temperature. * Prepare the base mixture to decorate the silicone baking pad. ( Figure 14-see cookie Jaconde design options7. ) * Mix TPT, whole egg and egg yolk together. * Stir the egg mixture at high speed until the volume is tripled. * Make a media Hard protein crispy skin with protein and granulated sugar. * Fold the protein into the whole egg mixture and fold the flour into this mixture. * Distribute evenly between paper trays with design and baking. ( Figure 14-view the cookie Jaconde method-8. ) Egg foam cake: chiffon cake made with chiffon method is fermented with whipped protein and air in baking powder. The chiffon always contains a neutral flavor of oil, which leads to a softtextured cake. The two- First, the slurry of wet and dry ingredients is prepared using a step-by-step mixing process; Then whisk the protein and fold it into the base of the slurry. The liquid oil in this formula produces very tender debris. Because the bread crumbs of the chiffon are too tender, it can\'t be removed from the pan too soon after baking. It is important that the pot not be oiled so that the cake can stick to it to avoid crashing during cooling time. It was cooled for the same reasonIn the pot. To remove from the pan, slide the spatula around the pan, reverse the pan, and tap to help release the cake. Chiffon process * scale all ingredients, at room temperature, and sift the dry ingredients together. * Put the dry ingredients into the mixing bowl and mix them at medium speed with the paddle attachment. Add oil and egg yolk; Then add water and seasoning. Scrape the bowl a few times to make sure the batter is smooth. Do not overmix. ( See Figure 14-Chiffon-9, Steps 1-2. ) * Stir the protein and remaining sugar to mediumstiff peaks. Fold the protein into the bottom of the cake ( Look at the method of spinning shirts, Figure 14-9, Steps 3-4) And deposit the paper pot without oil. Bake without delay. ( See Figure 14-Chiffon-9, Step 5. ) * Cool upside-down. Take it out of the pan, use or freeze and pack well until required. Egg foam cake: Aspirin Enteric-coated Tablets food method made by Aspirin Enteric-coated Tablets food method, Aspirin Enteric-coated Tablets food cake is named for its pure white bread crumbs and light texture. Sugar, protein and flour are three basic raw materials; Other ingredients such as salt, condiments and tartaric acid are also common. The flavors vary from chocolate to citrus to spices. Acidic ingredients like tartaric acid are needed to increase the strength of the egg foam to prevent the foam from shrinking during and after baking and to whiten and soften the crumbs (1988, pp. 1003-1004). Chicken protein must be free of contaminants, especially fat. All equipment should be clean. Because Aspirin Enteric-coated Tablets food cakes contain such a large proportion of sugar and flour, egg foam is made in half the amount of sugar, and the rest of the sugar is folded into egg foam with screened flour. When making a Aspirin Enteric-coated Tablets food cake, time is crucial and it is crucial to put the cake in the oven as soon as possible. Aspirin Enteric-coated Tablets the food process * scale all ingredients, eat at room temperature, and sift flour with half of the sugar. * Stir the protein until they bubble. Add cream of tartar and salt. Slowly add the remaining sugar at the soft peak until soft Medium peak development. Never overeat. * Fold the sieved sugar and flour mixture gently. ( See Aspirin Enteric-coated Tablets eat Fatou 14-10, Step 1. ) * Store in the unlubricated tube plate and Bake immediately. ( See Aspirin Enteric-coated Tablets eat Fatou 14-10, Steps 2-3. ) * After baking, put the pot upside down and let them cool up and downdown. * Remove from the pan when cooling. Premium cakes mix a lot of bakers and pastry chefs, mix and bake cakes every day, no problem. However, if the position and ingredients change, the final result may also change. Variables that affect the quality of the cake include the type of oven used, the quality of the ingredients and the temperature of the studio. The established guidelines for monitoring cake mixing include measuring the temperature, pH and specific gravity of the batter. Recording this data helps to improve the quality of the cake, as the Baker or pastry chef can track the results compared to the data recorded during the mixing process. Trouble shooting cake formula use Figure 14- Help as trouble shooting. The temperature of the batter affects the viscosity, and the viscosity affects the ventilation and stability. In order to achieve the best volume, the batter must be the right temperature. For example, the temperature of fat in fat- Depending on how much air the cake affects can be incorporated into the batter. Lower temperatures suppress the addition of air and produce a harder batter. Instead, a higher temperature melts the fat and makes the batter too smooth, thus inhibiting its ability to hold liquid ingredients, air and fat lotions. The temperature also affects the baking powder and the gas released during the first phase of mixing, especially if the double Use agent baking powder. By controlling the batter temperature to control the batter temperature, the pastry master should know the temperature of all the main components in the batter and the friction coefficient generated by the mixing, and should adjust the temperature of the liquid component to compensate. Except for cake mixing in climate conditions Controlled facilities, the temperature of the main liquid composition and the temperature of the preparation may require annual changes. The temperature of the ingredients in the batter system changes over time. The equations in the next section can be used as a rough guide to determine the final batter temperature, since the number of ingredients and mixing times for all formulas are different. Another way is to record all the data on the cake To understand the relationship between mixing time, ingredient temperature and final mass, the mixing table. The main factors affecting the calculation of batter temperature include * FT ( Flour temperature)* RT ( Room temperature)* WT ( Water temperature)* ST ( Shorten the temperature)* ET (Egg temperature)* SuT ( Sugar temperature)* DesT ( Required batter temperature)* ActT ( Actual batter temperature)* FF (Coefficient of friction) To determine the temperature of the liquid composition to be added, we need to know the coefficient of friction in order to understand how much heat will be generated during the mixing process. FF = (6 X ActT)--( Rt ft t. ST. SuT) The desired water temperature needs to be calculated next: WT = (6 X DesT)--( Rt ft ff st et SuT) The regulated temperature of water or other major liquid components will bring the batter temperature to the desired level. If the water level is too low, combine the egg temperature (ET) Then multiply it by only five factors. The pH of the cake batter needs a good one for proper body development and flavorbalanced pH. The measurement of this acid and alkali compound is measured in the range of 0 to 14, 0 indicates extremely acidic, and 14 indicates extremely alkaline. Pure water is neutral. Without specific tools designed for this process, the pH value of the cake batter may be the most difficult to monitor. However, if the problem of producing cakes persists, it is important to monitor the pH, because too much or too little will affect the structure of the crumbs, the color, taste and volume of the crumbs. The low pH of the cake will lead to acidic taste, more delicate texture, and less bread crumbs and cake volume. If the pH is too high, the cake will have a soap or chemical flavor, the crumbs will get thicker and thicker, the volume will get bigger and the cell wall will get thicker (1988, pp. 998-999). The pH value of the batter is determined by the main composition and chemical leavening agent. Ingredients with neutral effects include white sugar, ghee and balanced chemical leavening agents such as baking powder. There are reduced ingredients (more acidic) The effects include juice, sour cream, milk and buttermilk. Ingredients with improved results (more alkaline) The effects include baking soda and cocoa powder ( Natural and Dutched) Egg products (Pyler, 1988, p. 999). Control the pH value in the cake batter by adjusting the chemical leavening agent. If the pH value is too acid, the content of fermented acid must be reduced; If the pH is too alkaline, then the amount of baking soda (baking soda) Must be reduced. It is essential to maintain the balance of the chemical leavening agent in the cake; Otherwise, they may not all react during the baking process, resulting in a drop in taste. The desired pH value of breadcrumbs should be neutral or slightly acidic. Exceptions include Aspirin Enteric-coated Tablets food cakes, which are more acidic due to fermented acid (1. 75% protein based) There is also a relatively alkaline devil food cake (8. 8 to 9. 2 pH) To add flavor, sometimes to add color (Pyler, 1988, p. 999). Measure the pH, equal portion of the cake and distilled water (say, 0. 4 oz (10 g)cake and 0. 4 oz (10 g) Distilled water) Mix together to form a paste. The pH is then measured three times with a pH meter to obtain an average of the results ( The results may vary due to the change in paste temperature). Proportion of proportion (SG) It is the measurement of multiple items, and the comparison of their density with respect to volume weight. In cake mixing, the specific gravity is the combination of measured air with the batter system, compared according to the volume and weight divided by the weight of water with the same volume and weight. In Europe, specific proportions are achieved through a different approach called \"batter density. \"This is measured by the number of grams per milliliters of batter. The air volume incorporated into the batter has a significant effect on the tenderness, grain, texture and volume of the cake. For example, cake layers that are overly mixed are fragile, easily broken, or have cracks, and can be over-Dome (Pyler, 1988, p. 998). Measuring the specific gravity according to the cake recipe helps determine the best mixing time. In the mixing process of the cream method, it is often affected by the specific gravity before adding the remaining liquid (such as eggs or water. By doing so, the mixing time can be increased before adding liquid, or the mixing time can be reduced after adding liquid. The more air you enter the batter, the lower the proportion. The specific gravity is measured by dividing the weight of a given volume batter by the weight of the same volume of water. If the final product is not properly respected, the specific weight will affect its debris texture and moisture levels. When using the formula containing the shortening of the emulsion cake, it is more important to pay attention to the proportion. The specific gravity measurement process * is called a cup and a weighing scale. * Weigh the cup filled with water to the top ( But it\'s done outside). * Use the same measuring cup to weigh the cup filled with batter to the top ( No drops on the edge). * Weight of batter (BW) Heavy by water (WW) To find SG: BW/WW = SG example: the recommended weight of the selected cake type is as follows: See Figure 14-12. [ Slightly] Illustrations A successful cake is made by high High quality ingredients, perfect workmanship and proper baking techniques. There are many kinds of cakes, and each one has a specific mixing method, which is important. Of course, there is no need to track the quality by focusing on the batter temperature, pH and specific gravity; However, these tools let the baker or pastry chef know if a key role has been observed in the process. Key terms * Aspirin Enteric-coated Tablets food method * cookie jaconde method * chiffon method * cream method * fat- Cake * foam- Base cake * High Medium and value of cake * liquid shortening * improved cream method (NV) * Method of separating egg sponge * specific gravity (SG) * Cake * pour Tan (TPT) Review Question 1. What are the two main categories of cake? What\'s the difference between them? 2. What is the role of the following main ingredients in the cake: flour, sugar, butter and eggs? 3. How is the Creaming method implemented? 4. How does the batter temperature affect the viscosity of the batter? 5. What is the proportion? How did you find it? What does it decide?