This is a pneumatic hand that uses silicone artificial muscles as an actuator. They are driven by compressed air. This makes it more human than most robotic hands. Compared with traditional Gear Motors and servo systems, the production cost of artificial muscles is also very low. Ideally, the whole thing will be printed entirely with a 3d printer, a 3d printer printing hard plastic and soft rubber that holds the air pressure. Since I have no access to such a machine, soft silicone parts must be cast in a 3d printed mold. This is an open source project. Version 1. 0 is mainly proof of concept-- Prototype, there is a lot of room for improvement. Although not as strong as a man, it is strong enough to hold a cup of coffee or carry a briefcase. I use Makerbot Replicator 2 to print parts and molds in PLA plastic. Step 2 figure shows the 3d printing and casting parts used to make robot hands. 20 pourable silicone from smooth dragon skin-On. com. Other types of silicone can be used, but this has good flexibility and pouring ability for casting artificial muscles and skin. 100% silicone filler corn starch for the production of Oogoo 1/8 silicone tubing and 1/8 PVC tubing and fittings From: parts for air muscle controllers, see here: parts for robot neurons, see here: 6 4- The round head screws of 40x3/4 and nutsThere have four different hand bones, turning and holding four fingers. They can print without support. All 3d prints are printed using PLA in Makerbot Replicator 2 with the following settings: standard resolution of raft 10% fill 2 housing. 2mm layers- There are two different bones that support the thumb muscles and the thumb. They are thumb 1. stl and thumb2. Cast the entire finger in a 3d printed mold. This creates a soft robotic finger that contains 3 muscles, soft bones between muscles, and fingertips. It also contains two modules. In the air channel that powers the muscles. Casting and disassembly once Molded, the fins of the embedded separator bend until they are out of the air rod. Then the space bar slides out and leaves the air passage. Then stick to the air hole with a silicone filler or Oogoo. The top partition fins remain embedded in place and do not interfere with muscle movement. All three fingers are the same size. The small finger is reduced to 90 of the full size. Break- The finger mold is designed into several pieces (pic 4) To make it easier to go Silicone finger mold. I tried using a thicker reusable mold for the first time, but found that no matter which release method I used, it was very difficult to remove the cast silicone from the mold. They just have too much surface area. Half the time, I had to destroy the mold in order to get the casting out. So I ended up making a very thin mold with a broken wire for easy disassemblymold. No release required. Three part molds two lower thumb muscles are cast in two bottom molds that stick together. Top complete mold with separator fins. Unfortunately, a vacuum chamber is required for a cast silicone artificial muscle. Without it, there will be bubbles in the muscles that leak air even under low pressure. The vacuum pump is used by placing it in a vacuum for 2 or 3 minutes before the silicone mixture is poured into the mold. Using a dissolved mold, I also tried a 3d printing mold made of a thin thread of the hip dissolved in lemon. When it dissolves well enough, the lemon will shrink and Harden to an unacceptable level. It also saturates the silicone permanently, making it non-adhesive. Acetone works better, but it also shrinks and Harden silicone to a lesser extent. I have started trying to dissolve the pva wire in the water, but it has not been completely resolved yet. Step 5 The picture shows the lower muscles of the two thumbs. I did not get the correct pivot point. The back muscles should rotate in the direction of the palm. What needs to be fixed in the next version. The skin of the back of the hand is designed to insert grooves into the bone structure. This makes it possible to peel it back into contact with internal muscles and bones. Skinmold. Cast Skin using stl. Place a piece of acrylic sheet on top of the mold and weigh it after pouring to keep the skin thin. The skin pad is cast in shape and later glued to the PLA Palm Board and thumb muscles with Oogoo. In order to achieve good adhesion, a thin layer of pure silica gel caulking agent must first be placed on the PLA where the liner is located. Let it dry overnight and then stick the mat to it with Oogoo. Oogoo itself will not have a lot of insistence on the PLA. The pneumatic muscle controller consists of 13 solenoid valves and a 12 volt air compressor. It can control 11 muscles. They can be pressurized at 9 psi or vacuum can be applied. I gave details on how to build it in my previous instructions: if you just want to test some air muscles without a controller, a 60cc syringe with a pipe works fine. It can provide up to 30 psi. Below is a schematic diagram of the main robot neurons that control the pneumatic valves that power the artificial muscles. There are three on Picaxe\'s microbase. Controller for serial networking. The primary neuron sends commands to the two actuator neurons that control the valve. Figure 3 shows a schematic diagram of two activated neurons. For more details on robotic neurons, see here: Picaxe code that controls robotic neurons. You can control a single muscle using a universal TV remote set to use Sony code. Muscle sequences can also be activated with a remote control. Here is the code for 3 Picaxe controller neurons: \'20m2 primary neurons- Hand b1 = 1 pause 100 serout c. 0,t4800,(1,11) The open intake was suspended by 40 serout c. 0,t4800,(1,11) The open intake was suspended by 40 serout c. 1,t2400,(170,9,$0C,127)\'clock m1 24-127, 84- 2/3 speed, 127 default pause 100 loop1: Low c Monthly debugging b1irin [1000,loop1],b. 5, send1\' valve1 button1 = 0 if b6 = 0; send2\' v2 if b6 = 1; send3\' v3 if b6 = 2; send6\' v6 if b6 = 5 then if b6 = 6; send7\' v7 if b6 = 7; send8\' v8 if b6 = 8; if b6 = 9-) Send12\' enter if b6 = 14 if b6 = 11, then send13\' guide if b6 = 21, then send14\' power if b6 = 16 Send 17\'ch-if b6 = 17-- Vid2 send116 \"go up close to send1 send1:\" serout c if b6 = 116. 0,t4800,(1,13) PAUSE 40 serout c. 0,t4800,(1,1) \'Send 1 byte and 1 byte to pause 40 goto send1 send2: serout c as a qualifier. 0,t4800,(1,2) PAUSE 40 goto loop1 send3: serout c. 0,t4800,(1,3) PAUSE 40 goto loop1 send4: serout c. 0,t4800,(1,4) PAUSE 40 goto loop1 send5: serout c. 0,t4800,(1,5) PAUSE 40 goto loop1 send6: serout c. 0,t4800,(1,6) PAUSE 40 goto loop1 send7: serout c. 0,t4800,(1,7) PAUSE 40 goto loop1 send8: serout c. 0,t4800,(1,8) PAUSE 40 goto loop1 send9: serout c. 0,t4800,(1,9) PAUSE 40 goto loop1 send10: serout c. 0,t4800,(1,10) PAUSE 40 goto loop1 send11 :\'(-)serout c. 0,t4800,(1,11) PAUSE 40 goto send1 send12: enter serout c. 0,t4800,(1,12) PAUSE 40 goto send1 send13: \"boot serout c. 0,t4800,(1,13) PAUSE 40 goto send1 send14: \"power send 21 serout c. 0,t4800,(1,21) Send 21 pause 40 go to send1 send16: serout c. 0,t4800,(1,16) PAUSE 40 goto loop1 send17: \'serout c. 0,t4800,(1,17) PAUSE 40 goto loop1\' 18x to activate neurons 1- Hand\' picaxe 18x low 1 low 2 low 3 low 7 low 6 low 5 low 4 Ring 1: \'serin 0, t4800, b1 serin 0, t4800,1) , B1 \'receive 1 byte 30\' debug b1\' valve 1-after receiving 1 pause- If b1 = 1 then act1 if b1 = 2 then act2 if b1 = 3 then act3 if b1 = 4 then act4 7 act7 if b1 = 16; if b1 = 17 then vid1; if b1 = 17 then vid2 116 if b1 = 21 then turn off and then openhand \"presurev1v2\" power to loop1 vid1: high 7 pause 800 low 7 high 4 pause 70 low 4 pause 2000 high 7 vac PAUSE 1000 high 4 PAUSE 1000 low 4 low 7 high 1 high 3 high 4 high 6 high 7 pause 4000 low 1 low 2 low 4 low 5 low 6 high 3 pause 3000 high 3 low 7 pause 3000 pause 4000 pause high 3 high 4 pause 4000 high 3 low 4 pause 2000 low 3 goto loop1 vid2: pause 1200 high 3 pause 500 low 3 pause 200 go to pause 1 pause 3000 Goto loop1 act1: \'v1 high month pause month low month go to loop1 act2: \'v2 high month suspension month low month transfer to loop1 act3: high month suspension month low month transfer to loop1 act4: high 7 pause 20 low 7 goto loop1 act5: high 6 suspension 20 low 6 goto loop1 act6: High 5 suspension month low month transfer to loop1 act7: high month suspension month low month transfer to loop1 closehand: high 1 high 2 high 3 high 4 high 5 high 6 high 7 pause 2000 low 1 low 2 low 3 low 4 low 5 low 6 low 7 goto loop1 openhand: high 1 high 4 high 5 high 6 pause 4000 low 1 low 2 low 3 low 4 low 5 low 6 high 7 pause 4000 low 5 low 6 low 7 goto loop1 presurev1v2: ch high 1\'v1 arm down high 2\'v2 suspension 800 low 1 suspension 1500 low 2 high 1 high 2 suspension 700 low month suspension 60 high month \'v7 suspension 1440 month suspension month\' goto loop1 suspended 1600 \"intimate month of paper-carrying teeth \'v1 \'v2 suspended the month of the arm 2200 month low 2\'arm left high Moon\' v6 suspended 1200 low 5\'arm down high 1 \'v1 high 2\' v2 pause 800 low 1 low 2 goto vac1v2: \"Vac ch- Pause 3000 high 1\'v1 vac valve high 2\'v2 high 6\'v5 high 5\'v6 high 3 high 7 pause 3500 low 1 low 2 low 6 low 3 low 7 pause 20 high 4 low 30004 high 1\'release vac inline high 2 high 4 high 6 high 5 use 2000 low 1 low 2 low 4 low 6 low 5 high 3 high 7 use 1000 low 3 low 7 goto neurons II. Low hands 1 low 2 low 3 low 7 low 6 low 5 low 4 Ring 1: \'serin 0, t4800, b1 serin 0, t4800 ,(1) , B1 \'receives 1 byte after receiving 1 pause, 30\' debug b1\' valve 8- 14 if b1 = 1 then act13 if b1 = 2 then act13 if b1 = 3 then act13 if b1 = 4 then act13 if b1 = 5, then act if b1 = 8 then act13; if b1 = 9 then act8 then act9 if b1 = 10 then act10 if b1 = 11 then act11 if b1 = 12, then act12 if b1 = 13 then act13 if b1 = 14, = 17, then vid2 if b1 = 116, then powervac5goto 21 loop1 vid1 if b1 = then: pause 2850 low 5\'vac low 7 high 6 pause 2000 high 7 low 6 high 1 high 2 pause 4000 low 1 pause 4000 low 2 low 5 pause 2000 pause 4000 \"intermediate index low 5 low 7\'vac intake Off high 6 high 1 pause 4000 high 7 low 6 low 1 high 5 goto loop1 vid2: high 2 high 5 pause 900 high 1 PAUSE 1000 low 1 low 2 low 5 goto loop1 pause 2000 high 7 low vac high 6 low 5 PAUSE 1000 low 6 High 5 Goto loop1 act8: high month\'s month suspension month low month transfer to loop1 act9: high month\'s month suspension month low month transfer to loop1 act10: high 3 high 5 pause 20 low 3 low 5 goto loop1 act11: \'v11 intake is high 7 goto loop1 act12: high 6 High 5 pause 20 low 6 low 5 rattan act1 act13: High 5 pause 20 low 5 rattan act1 act14: \"stop high 4 pause 5000 low 4 rear rattan high 5 HIGH 1 pause 2000 low 5 low 1 turn to power1 powervac5: 5 Second power vac low 7\' upper arm intake close low 5 high 6 high 1 high 2 high 3 pause 8000 high 7 low 6 low 1 low 3 high 5 rear rattan loop1 presurev1v2: \"ch high 5\" arm down pause 3160 high 1\'v8 pause 1200 low 1 pause 200 \'goto vac1 vacv1v2: Ch- High 2 Open gripper pause 1500 high 3 grip pause 1500 high 1 v8 pause 3520 pause 3000 low 6 high 7 low 1 foot power compressor one of the advantages of using the air power muscles, an air pump suitable for shoes or shoes should be designed. This can be used to pressurize a small flat backpack tank while walking. This can maintain the power of the hand and arm in a rather unobtrusive way. In the first version of this robot hand, one thing that is missing is to pull the tendons and muscles of your fingers apart. Now it depends on the stiffness of the finger, so it is a bit soft. I tried various tendons ( Silicone elastic band) And the ligaments that open your fingers. Unfortunately, they severely hinder the grip of the fingers. Once an arm is built, it can hold four or five bars to open the air muscles of your fingers. I have also been working on the pull muscles that use tendons. Higher pressure I used the excess valves for the muscle controller and they can only stay around 9 psi. I am currently testing some of the 3d printing valves that I have designed that work at 30 psi. This will greatly increase the grip and speed of the fingers. I have started working on human-sized arms but am not ready yet. I am trying to make a lightweight valve that fits my arm.